22:1 Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover1. JESUS PREDICTS, THE RULERS PLOT FOR AND JUDAS BARGAINS FOR HIS DEATH. (Mount of Olives, Bethany, and Jerusalem. Tuesday after sunset, which Jews regarded as the beginning of Wednesday.) Matthew 26:1-5,14-16; Mark 14:1,2,10,11; Luke 22:1-6
Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called the
Passover. See Mark
22:2 And the chief
priests and the scribes sought how they might put him to death; for they feared
And the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might put him to
death; for they feared the people. See Mark
22:3 And Satan entered into Judas
who was called Iscariot1, being of the number of the
Judas who was called Iscariot. See Mark
3:19 and see John
22:4 And he went
away, and communed with the chief priests and captains1,
how he might deliver him unto them.
And he went away, and communed with the chief priests and captains,
how he might deliver him unto them. See Mark
22:5 And they were
glad, and covenanted to give him money1.
And they were glad, and covenanted to give him money. See Mark
22:6 And he
consented, and sought opportunity to deliver him unto them in the absence of the
And he consented, and sought opportunity to deliver him unto them in
the absence of the multitude. See Mark
22:7 And the day
of unleavened bread came1, on which the passover must be
PREPARATION FOR PASSOVER. DISCIPLES CONTEND FOR PRECEDENCE. (Bethany to
Jerusalem. Thursday afternoon and, after sunset, beginning of Friday.) Matthew
And the day of unleavened bread came. See Mark
22:9 And they said unto him, Where
wilt thou that we make ready1?
Where wilt thou that we make ready? See Mark
22:10 And he said
unto them1, Behold, when ye are entered into the city,
there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water; follow him into the house
whereinto he goeth.
And he said unto them. See Mark
22:11 And ye
shall say unto the master of the house1, The Teacher saith
unto thee, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my
And ye shall say unto the master of the house, etc. See Mark
22:14 And when
the hour was come, he sat down, and the apostles with him1.
And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the apostles with him.
22:15 And he said unto them, With
desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer1:
With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I
suffer. Jesus had desired to keep with his disciples this last type
which stood so close to the thing typified. It was a feast commemorating a
great deliverance from death through the sacrifice of a lamb, and the real
sacrifice and deliverance of which it was typical were about to be fulfilled
in the unfolding of the kingdom of God.
22:17 And he
received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, Take this, and divide it
And he received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, Take
this, and divide it among yourselves. Luke brings out the parallelism
between the passover and the Lord's supper. Each consisted in eating
followed by drinking, and the closeness of the parallel is emphasized by the
use of almost the same words with regard to the cup (Luke
22:16,18). The passover was typical of the Lord's suffering
"before" the event, and the Lord's supper is typical of the same
thing "after" the event.
22:19 And he took
bread, and when he had given thanks, he brake it1, and
gave to them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in
remembrance of me.
THE LORD'S SUPPER INSTITUTED. (Jerusalem. Evening before the crucifixion.) Matthew
22:19,20; 1 Corinthians
And he took bread, and when he had given thanks, he brake it, etc.
22:20 And the cup
in like manner after supper1, saying,
This cup is the new covenant in my blood, [even] that which is poured out for
And the cup in like manner after supper. Luke distinguishes between
the cup taken during Luke
22:17, and taken after supper. The first belonged to the passover, this
to the Lord's Supper. See Mark
Saying, This cup is the new covenant in my blood, [even] that which is
poured out for you. See Mark
22:21 But behold,
the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table1.
JUDAS' BETRAYAL AND PETER'S DENIAL FORETOLD. (Jerusalem. Evening before the
But behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table.
22:22 For the Son
of man indeed goeth, as it hath been determined: but woe unto that man through
whom he is betrayed1!
For the Son of man indeed goeth, as it hath been determined: but woe
unto that man through whom he is betrayed! See Mark
22:23 And they
began to question among themselves, which of them it was that should do this
And they began to question among themselves, which of them it was that
should do this thing. See Mark
22:24 And there
arose also a contention among them, which of them was accounted to be greatest1.
And there arose also a contention among them, which of them was
accounted to be greatest. In sending to secure the room in which the
paschal supper was being eaten, Jesus had said, "My time is at
hand". Such expressions were falsely construed by the apostles. They
thought that Jesus was about to set up his kingdom, and began at once to
contend for the chief places. Jesus rebukes this false ambition in much the
same manner as he had previously. See Mark
9:33 and see Mark
22:25 And he said unto them, The
kings of the Gentiles have lordship over them1; and they
that have authority over them are called Benefactors.
The kings of the Gentiles have lordship over them. See Mark
22:26 But ye
[shall] not [be] so1: but he that is the greater among
you, let him become as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve.
But ye [shall] not [be] so, etc. See Mark
22:28 But ye are
they that have continued with me in my temptations1;
But ye are they that have continued with me in my temptations. The
word "temptations" is here used to mean "trials" (James
22:30 that ye may
eat and drink at my table in my kingdom1; and
ye shall sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel2.
That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom. The words
concerning eating and drinking at the Lord's table refer to the ancient
custom of thus bestowing honor and distinction (2 Samuel
9:7; 2 Samuel
19:28), and indicate that the apostles, being about to participate in
the Lord's condemnation and suffering, should in the end share his
exaltation and its attendant joys.
And ye shall sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
Simon1, behold, Satan asked to
have you, that he might sift you as wheat2:
Simon, Simon. By thus repeating the name, Jesus tempered the
rebuke. See also Luke
Behold, Satan asked to have you, that he might sift you as wheat.
The language here suggests a repetition, in some degree, of Satan's conduct
in the case of Job. See Job
22:32 but I made
supplication for thee, that thy faith fail not1; and
do thou, when once thou hast turned again, establish thy brethren2.
But I made supplication for thee, that thy faith fail not. Jesus,
having insight into what was going on in the spirit world, made supplication
that Peter might be enabled to endure the trial.
And do thou, when once thou hast turned again, establish thy brethren.
The language sadly intimates that Satan's test would leave him in need of
repentance. As the one who perhaps exercised the strongest influence over
the other ten apostles, Peter is exhorted to use his own bitter experience
for their benefit and strengthening.
22:33 And he said unto him, Lord,
with thee I am ready to go both to prison and to death1.
Lord, with thee I am ready to go both to prison and to death. See Mark
22:34 And he said, I
tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, until thou shalt thrice deny
that thou knowest me1.
I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, until thou shalt
thrice deny that thou knowest me. See Mark
22:35 And he said unto them, When I sent
you forth without purse, and wallet, and shoes, lacked ye anything? And they
When I sent you forth without purse, and wallet, and shoes, lacked ye
anything? And they said, Nothing. See Mark
6:8. In this passage our Lord draws a contrast between the favor with
which his messengers had been received on their "former" mission
and the trials and persecutions which awaited them in their
"future" course. If they had prepared then to be received with
joy, they were to prepare now to be opposed with bitterness; for the utter
rejection of the Master would be followed by the violent persecution of the
22:37 For I say unto you, that this which
is written must be fulfilled in me, And he was reckoned
with transgressors1: for that which concerneth me hath
And he was reckoned with transgressors. See Isaiah
22:38 And they
said, Lord, behold, here are two swords1. And he said unto
them, It is enough2.
And they said, Lord, behold, here are two swords. The apostles took
the words of Jesus literally, and showed two swords, and the Lord, for their
future enlightenment, said,
It is enough. Thus intimating that he did not mean a literal arming
with carnal weapons, for had he done so, two swords would not have sufficed
for twelve men.
22:39 And he came out, and went, as his
custom was, unto the mount of Olives; and the disciples also followed him.
GOING TO GETHSEMANE, AND AGONY THEREIN. (A garden between the brook Kidron and
the Mount of Olives. Late Thursday night.) Matthew
22:40 And when he was at the place, he
said unto them, Pray that ye enter not into temptation1.
Pray that ye enter not into temptation. See Mark
22:41 And he was parted from them about
a stone's cast1; and he kneeled
down and prayed2,
About a stone's cast. About a hundred fifty to two hundred feet.
And he kneeled down and prayed. Compare Mark
22:42 saying, Father,
if thou be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless not my will, but thine,
Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless not
my will, but thine, be done. See Mark
22:44 And being in an agony he prayed more
earnestly; and his sweat became as it were great drops
of blood falling down upon the ground1.
And his sweat became as it were great drops of blood falling down upon
the ground. Commentators give instances of bloody sweat under abnormal
22:46 and said unto them, Why sleep ye?
rise and pray, that ye enter not into temptation.
Why sleep ye? rise and pray, that ye enter not into temptation. The
admonition which had at first been addressed to all the eleven (Luke
22:40) is now spoken to the chosen there.
22:47 While he yet spake, behold,
a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them1;
and he drew near unto Jesus to kiss him2.
JESUS BETRAYED, ARRESTED, AND FORSAKEN. (Gethsemane. Friday, several hours
before dawn.) Matthew
Behold, a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve,
went before them. See Mark
And he drew near unto Jesus to kiss him. See Mark
22:48 But Jesus
said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss1?
But Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a
kiss? When Judas approaches to carry out his contract, the Lord's
question exposes him before all as a betrayer, and not a disciple as he
wished to appear to be (for kissing was the common mode of salutation
between men, especially between teacher and pupils), and when Judas brazenly
persists in completing the sign, Jesus bids him do it, not as a friend, but
as a traitor. Little did the betrayer think that the kiss of Judas would
become a proverb in every nation.
22:50 And a
certain one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and struck off his
And a certain one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and
struck off his right ear. See Mark
22:51 But Jesus answered and said, Suffer
ye [them] thus far1. And he touched his ear, and healed
Suffer ye [them] thus far. Some think that Jesus spoke these words
to those who held him, asking them to loose him sufficiently to enable him
to touch the ear of Malchus. But the Revision committee, by inserting
"them" make Jesus address his disciples, commanding them not to
interfere with those who were arresting him, making it a general statement
of the idea which the Lord addressed specifically to Peter in the next
22:52 And Jesus
said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple1,
and elders, that were come against him, Are ye come out, as against a robber,
with swords and staves?
And Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple,
and elders, etc. See Mark
22:53 When I was
daily with you in the temple, ye stretched not forth your hands against me1:
but this is your hour, and the power of darkness.
When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched not forth your
hands against me. See Mark
22:54 And they seized him, and led him
[away], and brought him into the high priest's house. But
Peter followed afar off1.
SECOND STAGE OF JEWISH TRIAL. JESUS CONDEMNED BY CAIAPHAS AND THE SANHEDRIN.
(Palace of Caiaphas. Friday.) Matthew
But Peter followed afar off. See Mark
22:55 And when they had kindled a fire in
the midst of the court, and had sat down together, Peter
sat in the midst of them1.
Peter sat in the midst of them. See Mark
22:62 And he went
out, and wept bitterly1.
And he went out, and wept bitterly. See Mark
22:63 And the men
that held [Jesus] mocked him, and beat him1.
And the men that held [Jesus] mocked him, and beat him. See Mark
22:66 And as soon as it was day, the
assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together1,
both chief priests and scribes; and they led him away into their council,
THIRD STAGE OF JEWISH TRIAL. JESUS FORMALLY CONDEMNED BY THE SANHEDRIN AND LED
TO PILATE. (Jerusalem. Friday after dawn.) Matthew
The assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together,
etc. See Mark
22:67 If thou art the Christ, tell us. But
he said unto them, If I tell you, ye will not believe1:
If I tell you, ye will not believe. As experience had already
22:68 and if I
ask [you], ye will not answer1.
And if I ask [you], ye will not answer. Thus Jesus protests against
the violence and injustice of his trial. His judges were asking him whether
he was the Christ without any intention of investigating the truth of his
claim, but merely for the purpose of condemning him by unwarrantedly
assuming that he was not the Christ. They therefore asked in an unlawful
spirit as well as in an unlawful manner. Jesus had a good right to ask them
questions tending to confirm his Christhood by the Scripture, but had he
done so they would not have answered (Matthew
22:41-45). Jesus appeals to them to try the question as to who he was,
but they insist on confining the inquiry as to who he claimed to be,
assuming that the claim was false.
22:69 But from
henceforth shall the Son of man be seated at the right hand of the power of God1.
But from henceforth shall the Son of man be seated at the right hand of
the power of God. See Mark
22:70 And they all said, Art thou then the
Son of God? And he said unto them, Ye say that I am1.
Ye say that I am. The Hebrew mode of expression, equivalent to
"Ye say it, because I am".
22:71 And they said, What
further need have we of witness1? for we ourselves have
heard from his own mouth.
What further need have we of witness? Thus they unconsciously admit
their lack of evidence against Jesus.