For many, the name Martin Luther would trigger thoughts of the great Martin Luther King Jr., standing in front of the Lincoln Memorial to share his I Have a Dream speech with thousands. However, there is another well-known Martin Luther who also was a leader and writer in his own right, composing the recognized 95 Theses that led to the establishment of the Protestant Reformation. With Reformation Day on October 31st, let us journey back to the time of the German theologian to discover what led him to take a stand against the Roman Catholic Church and change the way we look at ourselves and our faith in God forever.
Ten Things to Know about Martin Luther and His 95 Theses:
1. Law and Lightning Contributed to Martin Luther’s Beginnings
Martin Luther (Nov. 10, 1483 - Feb. 18, 1546) was a German theologian in Eisleben, Germany who attended Latin school as a child, and when he was thirteen years old, attended law school at the University of Erfurt. He was nicknamed “The Philosopher” because he did so well in public debates in school. However, it was one stormy night in 1505 that really changed Luther’s life. As he was walking, lightning struck the ground nearby and caused him to cry out to St. Anne and vow to become a monk if he lived; he did so he honored his vow and became a monk.
2. Questioning of the Roman Catholic Church Increased before Luther’s 95 Theses
In the sixteenth century, many scholars and theologians were questioning some of the practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Fueled by the writings of church philosopher Augustine, these individuals believed that salvation came from God only (grace alone through faith alone), while the Catholic Church believed that faith and works were needed in response to God's grace. Today the Catholic Church would say that faith and the sacraments of the faith are needed for salvation (J.D. Crichton, Christian Celebration: The Sacraments). Luther especially followed Augustine’s belief of salvation and that the Bible was the only religious authority, not that of Catholic Church figures. He would later use these beliefs to build the foundation for the Protestant Reformation.
3. The Final Push for Change Began with a Scandal
This questioning of the Catholic Church’s beliefs was intensified due to a scandal involving giving indulgences; indulgences (a type of payment for sin) were given to the church so those paying (or those they were paying on behalf of) would be absolved of sins. One could even purchase indulgences for the deceased. Germany had banned indulgence-selling but it was still happening nonetheless; this was especially evident when a friar named Johann Tetzel decided to sell indulgences in 1517 to pay for renovating Rome’s St. Peter’s Basilica. Luther and others had had enough at this point and decided something had to be done.
4. The First Copy of 95 Theses was Nailed to Church Door
Fed up by the behavior of Tetzel, Luther decided a public and academic debate was in order and he wrote the 95 Theses (also known as the “Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences”) that listed some propositions and questions for debate. This he posted to the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church on October 31, 1517, in hopes that Archbishop Albert of Mainz, superior to Tetzel, would attend and also stop Tetzel from continuing to sell indulgences. Thanks to the invention of printing, the theses began to circulate around, and more people took notice and wanted answers from the Catholic Church.
5. The 95 Theses Called for Reform and Returning Repentance to God
Written in a tone of questioning rather than accusing, the theses centered most on the first two theses Luther had written: that only faith leads to salvation and God desires for believers to seek repentance. The rest of the 93 theses focused on indulgences and why it didn’t line up with the first two theses. Luther even discussed the indulgence scandal involving St. Peter’s Basilica, questioning why the pope wouldn’t consider paying for the church’s renovations himself than taking from the poor (Thesis 86).
6. Luther Called to Defend His Teachings
In the summer of 1518, many in Europe had been exposed to the 95 Theses, and Luther was called to Augsberg, Germany to defend his teachings of the theses. He was to present his theses to an assembly called a “diet,” led by the main anti-supporter of Luther, Cardinal Thomas Cajetan. After three days spent with the two men debating one another, a resolution couldn’t be reached, and Luther returned to Wittenberg.
7. The Pope Got Involved and Luther Was Called a Heretic
Beginning on November 9, 1518, Pope Leo X stated that Luther’s teachings and position were in conflict with the church’s teachings, which led Luther to step down from public debate. However, others continued on without him and pushed against the church’s authority, strengthening the Protestant Reformation. Proceedings then continued in 1519 to examine more of Luther’s teachings, seeing them as scandalous and possibly heretical. However, it was in July 1520 that the pope considered Luther’s teachings heretical and demanded that he recant his beliefs or be excommunicated. Luther refused to yield.
8. Luther Was Excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church
On January 3, 1521, Luther was officially excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church by Pope Leo X. Months later, April 17, 1521, Luther went before another assembly, the Diet of Worms, in Germany to see if he would recant his teachings, but he refused and a month later, on May 25, 1521, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V signed an edict saying that Luther’s writings were to be burned. Luther’s return to Wittenberg in 1521 also showed him that the reforming from his 95 Theses was turning into a political debate and sparked the Peasants’ War in Germany; something he wasn’t for.
9. Luther Withdrew from Public View, Married, and Raised a Family
Now apart from the Protestant Reformation, Luther preached, taught classes, and began a project that took him a decade to complete, translating the New Testament of the Bible into German. His translating actually impacted the German language positively, as it allowed more to understand what the Bible was teaching, and many scholars followed the same approach in interpretation. He also decided to get married to a former nun, Katherine of Bora, and they had five or six children together. Previously, Luther had debated against the Roman Catholic Church on clerical celibacy and also felt the Peasants’ War was God signaling the last days before Christ’s return so marriage was returning to God’s order for mankind.
10. Luther Established What Is Now Called Being a Polemical Theologian
Luther went back to the town of his birth, Eisleben, Germany, to settle a dispute between friends while dealing with advancing poor health. Before he could return home to his wife and family, he passed away on February 18, 1546. Centuries since his death, many have more books of Luther’s writings in their houses than many other well-known theologians, while his approach to theology, that of polemical theology, is seen by some as hard to argue and reconcile with it being formed through argument and controversy. However, no one can deny that the efforts Martin Luther made toward reforming Christianity are nothing short of inspiring.
Reformation Day on October 31st reminds us of what the German theologian Martin Luther did for the Christian faith years ago, standing firm on his beliefs even when he had to stand before the Roman Catholic Church. Martin Luther devoted his entire life to believing in a God who forgives and provides the whole way to salvation and freedom from sin through His Son Jesus. We could all take a lesson from Martin Luther nowadays, in a world that is still looking to sell and/or pay for indulgences in order to rectify their sins. It’s about returning to God in faith and seeking Him for the good works we are to do. Reading and believing the Bible, as well as daily prayer and interaction with God, were steps Martin Luther did to strengthen his trust and faith in God, and they are steps we can take too to bring hope in a challenging time.
Full 95 Theses from Martin Luther:
- When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ said, ``Repent'' (Mt 4:17), he willed the entire life of believers to be one of repentance.
- This word cannot be understood as referring to the sacrament of penance, that is, confession and satisfaction, as administered by the clergy.
- Yet it does not mean solely inner repentance; such inner repentance is worthless unless it produces various outward mortification of the flesh.
- The penalty of sin remains as long as the hatred of self (that is, true inner repentance), namely till our entrance into the kingdom of heaven.
- The pope neither desires nor is able to remit any penalties except those imposed by his own authority or that of the canons.
- The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring and showing that it has been remitted by God; or, to be sure, by remitting guilt in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in these cases were disregarded, the guilt would certainly remain unforgiven.
- God remits guilt to no one unless at the same time he humbles him in all things and makes him submissive to the vicar, the priest.
- The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to the canons themselves, nothing should be imposed on the dying.
- Therefore the Holy Spirit through the pope is kind to us insofar as the pope in his decrees always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity.
- Those priests act ignorantly and wickedly who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penalties for purgatory.
- Those tares of changing the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory were evidently sown while the bishops slept (Mt 13:25).
- In former times canonical penalties were imposed, not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition.
- The dying are freed by death from all penalties, are already dead as far as the canon laws are concerned, and have a right to be released from them.
- Imperfect piety or love on the part of the dying person necessarily brings with it great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater the fear.
- This fear or horror is sufficient in itself, to say nothing of other things, to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair.
- Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ the same as despair, fear, and assurance of salvation.
- It seems as though for the souls in purgatory fear should necessarily decrease and love increase.
- Furthermore, it does not seem proved, either by reason or by Scripture, that souls in purgatory are outside the state of merit, that is, unable to grow in love.
- Nor does it seem proved that souls in purgatory, at least not all of them, are certain and assured of their own salvation, even if we ourselves may be entirely certain of it.
- Therefore the pope, when he uses the words ``plenary remission of all penalties,'' does not actually mean ``all penalties,'' but only those imposed by himself.
- Thus those indulgence preachers are in error who say that a man is absolved from every penalty and saved by papal indulgences.
- As a matter of fact, the pope remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to canon law, they should have paid in this life.
- If remission of all penalties whatsoever could be granted to anyone at all, certainly it would be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to very few.
- For this reason most people are necessarily deceived by that indiscriminate and high-sounding promise of release from penalty.
- That power which the pope has in general over purgatory corresponds to the power which any bishop or curate has in a particular way in his own diocese and parish.
- The pope does very well when he grants remission to souls in purgatory, not by the power of the keys, which he does not have, but by way of intercession for them.
- They preach only human doctrines who say that as soon as the money clinks into the money chest, the soul flies out of purgatory.
- It is certain that when money clinks in the money chest, greed and avarice can be increased; but when the church intercedes, the result is in the hands of God alone.
- Who knows whether all souls in purgatory wish to be redeemed, since we have exceptions in St. Severinus and St. Paschal, as related in a legend.
- No one is sure of the integrity of his own contrition, much less of having received plenary remission.
- The man who actually buys indulgences is as rare as he who is really penitent; indeed, he is exceedingly rare.
- Those who believe that they can be certain of their salvation because they have indulgence letters will be eternally damned, together with their teachers.
- Men must especially be on guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to him.
- For the graces of indulgences are concerned only with the penalties of sacramental satisfaction established by man.
- They who teach that contrition is not necessary on the part of those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessional privileges preach unchristian doctrine.
- Any truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without indulgence letters.
- Any true Christian, whether living or dead, participates in all the blessings of Christ and the church; and this is granted him by God, even without indulgence letters.
- Nevertheless, papal remission and blessing are by no means to be disregarded, for they are, as I have said (Thesis 6), the proclamation of the divine remission.
- It is very difficult, even for the most learned theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the bounty of indulgences and the need of true contrition.
- A Christian who is truly contrite seeks and loves to pay penalties for his sins; the bounty of indulgences, however, relaxes penalties and causes men to hate them -- at least it furnishes occasion for hating them.
- Papal indulgences must be preached with caution, lest people erroneously think that they are preferable to other good works of love.
- Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend that the buying of indulgences should in any way be compared with works of mercy.
- Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better deed than he who buys indulgences.
- Because love grows by works of love, man thereby becomes better. Man does not, however, become better by means of indulgences but is merely freed from penalties.
- Christians are to be taught that he who sees a needy man and passes him by, yet gives his money for indulgences, does not buy papal indulgences but God's wrath.
- Christians are to be taught that, unless they have more than they need, they must reserve enough for their family needs and by no means squander it on indulgences.
- Christians are to be taught that the buying of indulgences is a matter of free choice, not commanded.
- Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting indulgences, needs and thus desires their devout prayer more than their money.
- Christians are to be taught that papal indulgences are useful only if they do not put their trust in them, but very harmful if they lose their fear of God because of them.
- Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the indulgence preachers, he would rather that the basilica of St. Peter were burned to ashes than built up with the skin, flesh, and bones of his sheep.
- Christians are to be taught that the pope would and should wish to give of his own money, even though he had to sell the basilica of St. Peter, to many of those from whom certain hawkers of indulgences cajole money.
- It is vain to trust in salvation by indulgence letters, even though the indulgence commissary, or even the pope, were to offer his soul as security.
- They are the enemies of Christ and the pope who forbid altogether the preaching of the Word of God in some churches in order that indulgences may be preached in others.
- Injury is done to the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or larger amount of time is devoted to indulgences than to the Word.
- It is certainly the pope's sentiment that if indulgences, which are a very insignificant thing, are celebrated with one bell, one procession, and one ceremony, then the gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies.
- The true treasures of the church, out of which the pope distributes indulgences, are not sufficiently discussed or known among the people of Christ.
- That indulgences are not temporal treasures is certainly clear, for many indulgence sellers do not distribute them freely but only gather them.
- Nor are they the merits of Christ and the saints, for, even without the pope, the latter always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outer man.
- St. Lawrence said that the poor of the church were the treasures of the church, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time.
- Without want of consideration we say that the keys of the church, given by the merits of Christ, are that treasure.
- For it is clear that the pope's power is of itself sufficient for the remission of penalties and cases reserved by himself.
- The true treasure of the church is the most holy gospel of the glory and grace of God.
- But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last (Mt. 20:16).
- On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first.
- Therefore the treasures of the gospel are nets with which one formerly fished for men of wealth.
- The treasures of indulgences are nets with which one now fishes for the wealth of men.
- The indulgences which the demagogues acclaim as the greatest graces are actually understood to be such only insofar as they promote gain.
- They are nevertheless in truth the most insignificant graces when compared with the grace of God and the piety of the cross.
- Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of papal indulgences with all reverence.
- But they are much more bound to strain their eyes and ears lest these men preach their own dreams instead of what the pope has commissioned.
- Let him who speaks against the truth concerning papal indulgences be anathema and accursed.
- But let him who guards against the lust and license of the indulgence preachers be blessed.
- Just as the pope justly thunders against those who by any means whatever contrive harm to the sale of indulgences.
- Much more does he intend to thunder against those who use indulgences as a pretext to contrive harm to holy love and truth.
- To consider papal indulgences so great that they could absolve a man even if he had done the impossible and had violated the mother of God is madness.
- We say on the contrary that papal indulgences cannot remove the very least of venial sins as far as guilt is concerned.
- To say that even St. Peter if he were now pope, could not grant greater graces is blasphemy against St. Peter and the pope.
- We say on the contrary that even the present pope, or any pope whatsoever, has greater graces at his disposal, that is, the gospel, spiritual powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written. (1 Co 12[:28])
- To say that the cross emblazoned with the papal coat of arms, and set up by the indulgence preachers is equal in worth to the cross of Christ is blasphemy.
- The bishops, curates, and theologians who permit such talk to be spread among the people will have to answer for this.
- This unbridled preaching of indulgences makes it difficult even for learned men to rescue the reverence which is due the pope from slander or from the shrewd questions of the laity.
- Such as: ``Why does not the pope empty purgatory for the sake of holy love and the dire need of the souls that are there if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a church?'' The former reason would be most just; the latter is most trivial.
- Again, ``Why are funeral and anniversary masses for the dead continued and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded for them, since it is wrong to pray for the redeemed?''
- Again, ``What is this new piety of God and the pope that for a consideration of money they permit a man who is impious and their enemy to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God and do not rather, beca use of the need of that pious and beloved soul, free it for pure love's sake?''
- Again, ``Why are the penitential canons, long since abrogated and dead in actual fact and through disuse, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences as though they were still alive and in force?''
- Again, ``Why does not the pope, whose wealth is today greater than the wealth of the richest Crassus, build this one basilica of St. Peter with his own money rather than with the money of poor believers?''
- Again, ``What does the pope remit or grant to those who by perfect contrition already have a right to full remission and blessings?''
- Again, ``What greater blessing could come to the church than if the pope were to bestow these remissions and blessings on every believer a hundred times a day, as he now does but once?''
- ``Since the pope seeks the salvation of souls rather than money by his indulgences, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons previously granted when they have equal efficacy?''
- To repress these very sharp arguments of the laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies and to make Christians unhappy.
- If, therefore, indulgences were preached according to the spirit and intention of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved. Indeed, they would not exist.
- Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, ``Peace, peace,'' and there is no peace! (Jer 6:14)
- Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, ``Cross, cross,'' and there is no cross!
- Christians should be exhorted to be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, death and hell.
- And thus be confident of entering into heaven through many tribulations rather than through the false security of peace (Acts 14:22).
-95 Theses courtesy of BibleStudyTools.com
"The 16th Century Protestant Reformation was born out of Martin Luther’s 95 Theses. The reforms, particularly in regard to indulgences (payments taken in place of penance), were posted to a cathedral door in Wittenberg, Germany as a proclamation. The 95 Theses were written in Latin and wouldn’t have attracted the attention of the German-speaking people on the way in and out of the church the day he nailed them to the door. His intent was to reform the Catholic Church. “True revivals are provoked by the sovereign work of God through the stirring of His Holy Spirit in the hearts of people,” wrote R.C. Sproul, “They happen when the Holy Spirit comes into the valley of dry bones (Ezek. 37) and exerts His power to bring new life, a revivification of the spiritual life of the people of God.” Though Luther did not intend to start a new denomination, he was accused of being a heretic and was excommunicated in 1520.
Martin Luther’s personal struggle and revelation continue to remind us of the freedom and peace we have in Christ, despite our constant dysfunction and sin. Should we feel the burden of guilt and shame, we should remember Luther, run to God in Scripture, and embrace the Truth ourselves. Luther said, “Anyone who is to find Christ must first find the church, how could anyone know where Christ is and what faith is in him unless he knew where his believers are?” We are forgiven, once for all, though we all fall short. No penance on earth could erase the effects of our sins. Christ accomplished it once and for all on the cross."
-Excerpted from "What Christians Need to Know about Reformation Day" by Meg Bucher
Related Article: What Christians Need to Know About Reformation Day
- Britannica.com, Martin Luther: The Indulgences Controversy, Diet of Worms, Later Years
- ChristianityToday.com, Martin Luther
- History.com, Martin Luther and the 95 Theses: Section 4, Section 5
Photo credit: ©GettyImages/typo-graphics
Blair Parke is a freelance writer for BibleStudyTools.com and editor for Xulon Press. A graduate of Stetson University with a Bachelor's in Communications, Blair previously worked as a writer/editor for several local magazines in the Central Florida area, including Celebration Independent and Lake Magazine in Leesburg, Florida and currently freelances for the Southwest Orlando Bulletin.