The Holy Trinity: Meaning of One God in Three Persons 

Do all Christians believe the doctrine of the Trinity? If one does not believe in the Trinity—that is, if a person has come to a settled conclusion that the doctrine of the Trinity is not true—does it make him a heretic?
Updated Apr 02, 2024
The Holy Trinity: Meaning of One God in Three Persons 

The concept of the Trinity is the belief that the one God, described in the Holy Bible, eternally exists in three Persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, and that these three are one God, co-equal and co-eternal, having precisely the same nature and attributes, and worthy of precisely the same worship, confidence, and obedience. They are each individually detailed in Scripture, all exalted with the same power and holiness of our Creator.

"Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" (Matthew 28:19)

"And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness..." (Genesis 1:26)

This might sound confusing at first, but it's a beautiful expression of the complexity and depth of God's nature. Someone has said it this way: If you try to explain the Trinity, you will lose your mind. But if you deny it, you will lose your soul. Let's take a look at the definition of the Trinity and the role of each Person in the Trinity today:

The Trinity: Table of Contents

Historical Background

The idea of the Trinity has been around since the early days of Christianity. It was first formulated by early Church Fathers in response to various heresies and misunderstandings about the nature of God. The term "Trinity" itself was coined by Tertullian, a Latin theologian, in the early 3rd century.

While the word "Trinity" doesn't appear in the Bible, the concept is clearly present. Verses like Matthew 28:19, where Jesus commands to baptize "in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit," reflect the triune nature of God. The interplay between the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is seen throughout the New Testament.

Roles in the Trinity

The Father

The Father is the source of all things, the creator of the universe, and the sustainer of life. He is described in Scripture as a loving and just God, who desires a relationship with His creation.  The sustenance provided by the Father is not merely physical but also spiritual, as He continually upholds the moral order of the universe. The Father is seen as a loving provider who meets the needs of His creation, ensuring that the world He crafted continues to flourish and reflect His glory.

The Son

The Son is the physical form that God took in the person of Jesus Christ. Through the incarnation, Jesus experienced the full range of human emotions, joys, and sufferings, making Him relatable to us. This act of taking on flesh demonstrates God's deep love and commitment to humanity, bridging the gap that sin had created. The Son's role as the Savior is most clearly seen in His redemptive work on the cross. Jesus' death and resurrection are the cornerstone of Christian belief, offering forgiveness and reconciliation to God.

The Holy Spirit

Often described as the "Counselor" or "Advocate," the Holy Spirit provides wisdom, direction, and understanding to those who seek to follow God's will. This guidance is not limited to moral decisions but encompasses all aspects of life, including relationships, career choices, and personal growth. The Holy Spirit works within the hearts of believers, illuminating the Scriptures and making the presence of God real and tangible in their daily lives.

Definition of the Trinity

There are many places we might go to find a suitable definition. Any of the great ecumenical creeds would serve us well in this regard. However, let's stick closer to home and simply reprint Article B—The True God from the Calvary Memorial Church Articles of Faith.

We believe in one living and true God who is the Creator of heaven and earth, who is eternal, almighty, unchangeable, infinitely powerful, wise, just, and holy.

We believe that the one God eternally exists in three Persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, and that these three are one God, co-equal and co-eternal, having precisely the same nature and attributes, and worthy of precisely the same worship, confidence, and obedience. Matthew 3:16, 17; Matthew 28:19, 20; Mark 12:29; John 1:14; Acts 5:3, 4; II Corinthians 13:14.

While I am sure that this statement is biblically accurate, I also understand that it can seem very intimidating. Let's break it down into six smaller statements about the Trinity that are easier to understand:

  • One God and One Only 
  • Exists in three Persons 
  • Equal and Eternal 
  • Worthy of equal praise and worship 
  • Distinct yet acting in unity 
  • Constituting the one true God of the Bible

As you might imagine, the early church struggled mightily over this doctrine. They eventually reduced their belief in the Trinity to two short statements. They concluded that God is …

  • One in Essence
  • Three in Person

When we say these things, we mean that the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God, but they are not three gods but only one God. The Father is not the Son, the Son is not the Spirit, the Spirit is not the Father, but each is God individually, and yet they are together the one true God of the Bible.

Have you ever seen the word "Godhead?" Theologians sometimes use that term when they want to refer to God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit as three divine Persons in one God.

At this point, I think we should acknowledge the chief objection to the doctrine of the Trinity, which is that it is absurd. Sometimes the Jehovah's Witnesses (who pointedly deny the Trinity) ridicule it with this little equation: 1 + 1 + 1 = 3. In their minds, Christians worship three Gods, not one. The answer is quite simple. The doctrine of the Trinity is not absurd if that's what the Bible teaches. Furthermore, there is more than one way to play with equations. You could also say it this way: 1 x 1 x 1 = 1!

Explanation of the Trinity

What exactly do we mean when we speak of the Trinity? Let's start with the negative and work toward the positive.

A. What we don't mean
First of all, Christians don't believe in three Gods. That's a heresy called Tritheism. Second, we don't believe that the Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit are three "forms" of God—like steam, water, and ice. That's the heresy called Modalism. Third, we don't believe that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are "parts" or "pieces" of God. That would imply that Jesus is 1/3rd God, the Father is 1/3rd God, and the Holy Spirit is 1/3rd God.

B. Where do we find the Trinity doctrine in the Bible?
I would answer that the Trinity is taught in both the Old and the New Testaments. It is taught by implication in the Old and by a direct statement in the New.

For instance, the Bible contains numerous clear statements regarding the unity of God: Deuteronomy 6:4 tells us that "the Lord is one." 1 Corinthians 8:4 adds that "there is no God but one." 1 Timothy 2:5 explicitly says "there is one God." All Christians heartily affirm this truth.

However, the Bible also contains clear statements regarding diversity within that unity. For instance, in the very first verse of the Bible, we are told, "In the beginning God." The Hebrew word for God is Elohim, which is actually a plural form of the word el. In other contexts, it's a word that is sometimes translated as "gods," referring to heathen deities. Later in the same chapter, we have one of the most striking statements of diversity-in-unity:

Then God said, ‘‘Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground." So God created man in his own image. In the image of God, he created him; male and female, he created them. Genesis 1:26-27

Notice the shift in pronouns. "Let us … in our image … So God created man in his own image. … he created him." From us and our to him. Why the shift? Commentators speak of a literary form called the plural of majesty or the "editorial we." This much is certainly true. If Genesis 1 does not explicitly teach diversity-in-unity within the Godhead, it certainly leaves room to develop it later in the Bible.

Isaiah 48:16 seems to explicitly refer to all three Persons of the Trinity (with my additions in parentheses): "And now the Sovereign LORD (the Father) has sent me (the Son), with his Spirit (the Holy Spirit)." I'm not suggesting that Isaiah fully understood the Trinity or that the Jewish readers would have understood what it meant, but I do think that in the light of the New Testament, we can say that this seems to be a clear statement of the Trinity in the Old Testament.

Consider further this line of evidence. All Three Persons are called God in different places in the Bible.

How could the Son and the Spirit be called God unless they somehow share in God's essence? But if they share in God's essence, they are God alongside the Father.

Finally, all three Persons are associated together on an equal basis in numerous passages:

  • Jesus' baptism—Matthew 3:13-17 (voice of the Father, Son baptized, Spirit descending like a dove). 
  • Salvation—1 Peter 1:2 (chosen by the Father, sanctified by the Spirit, sprinkled with the blood of Jesus). 
  • Sanctification—2 Corinthians 13:14 (grace of the Lord Jesus, love of God, fellowship of the Holy Spirit). 
  • Christian Baptism—Matthew 28:19 (baptized in one name, yet three Persons—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). 
  • Prayer—Ephesians 3:14-21 (strengthened by his Spirit, know the love of Christ, filled with the fullness of God). 
  • Christian Growth—2 Thessalonians 2:13 (chosen by God, loved by the Lord, sanctified by the Spirit). 

This list of passages might be extended. It simply shows how easily the writers of Scripture passed from one Person of the Trinity to another, doing so in a way that assumes their equality of nature while preserving their distinct personhood. If the doctrine of the Trinity is not true, it would seem blasphemy to speak so freely of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit in one breath.

Frequently Asked Questions

In this section of the message, I want to examine some of the common questions about the Trinity.

A. Where in the Bible do you find the word Trinity?
The word "Trinity" is not in the Bible. Neither is the word "Inerrancy," but we don't discard it simply because it isn't found in the Bible. The issue is not the word but the concept or the idea. We don't believe in the Trinity because of the word but because of what the Bible teaches.

B. Is there another word we could use?
Yes, there is. Theologians sometimes speak of the Tri-Unity of God. That's a good word—even though it sounds odd to our ears—because it combines the two ideas of unity and diversity in one word. There is a third word you should know. Sometimes, we speak of the "Triune" God. That's also another word that means the same thing as Trinity.

C. How can we illustrate the Trinity?
Many illustrations have been suggested. They are all useful as long as you remember; they are only illustrations. For water can exist as solid, liquid, or steam. That's okay, but usually water only exists in one state at a time. However, there is a physical condition in which water can exist as solid, liquid, and steam at the same time—which would be a much better illustration of the Trinity.

There are others we could mention. An egg is made up of a shell, the egg white, and the yolk. All three are needed for an egg to be complete. One of the more interesting illustrations note the different roles a person can play. I am a father, a son, and a husband at one and the same time. Yet I am only one person. Perhaps a more biblical approach is to consider that a husband and wife are two persons, yet in God's eyes, they are "one flesh." Add children and then you have the family as a miniature (and very imperfect) version of the Trinity.

Tony Evans commented that the pretzel is a good illustration because it consists of one piece of dough with three holes. Take away any one of the holes and the pretzel isn't really a pretzel anymore. (According to some people, the pretzel was actually invented in Europe several hundred years ago by a monk who wanted to illustrate the Trinity to the children of his village so he took some dough, looped into the familiar three-hour shape, based it, and gave it to the children as an edible object lesson.)

My personal favorite illustration comes from noted scientist Dr. Henry Morris. He notes that the entire universe is trinitarian by design. The universe consists of three things: matter, space, and time. Take away any one of those three, and the universe would cease to exist. But each one of those is itself a trinity.

  • Matter = mass + energy + motion 
  • Space = length + height + breadth
  • Time = past + present + future

Thus, the universe witnesses the character of the God who made it (cf. Psalm 19:1).

It's important to remember that all illustrations fail eventually. They don't "prove" the Trinity. They simply help us understand the concept.

The Trinity Applied

I am sure that many Christians think this doctrine has no practical value. That is, even if it's true, it doesn't and shouldn't matter to them. However, that simply isn't true. Let me suggest five important ramifications of this truth.

A. The Trinity helps us answer the question, "What was God doing before he created the universe?"
This is a question little children like to stump their parents with. But skeptics like to ask it as well. You may remember Augustine's answer: "He was preparing Hell for people who ask questions like that!"

But the Trinity teaches us that God had fellowship within his own being before the world's foundation. That's why the Bible tells us that the Father loves the Son (John 17:24). In some sense, we can never understand that God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit have forever communicated and loved each other.

Francis Schaeffer emphasized this point in his books. He says this is where the human desire for intimacy and communication comes from. We were made to communicate. That design is part of the image of God within each of us.

It also teaches us that God is never "lonely." He didn't create us because he "needed" us. God could have existed forever without us. That he made us at all is a statement of his great love and the wisdom of his plan.

B. The Trinity sets limits on human speculation about the nature of God.
We would like to know much about God, but our finite minds cannot comprehend it. We are not free to create God in our own image. The Trinity sets the limits for human speculation. God is more than the Trinity, but he is not less than that.

C. The Trinity teaches us that God is beyond all human comprehension.
After all, if we could explain God, he wouldn't be God. I have no doubt that God is much more than "one in essence, three in Person," but since I can't even understand those simple phrases, I don't worry at all about what else might be true about God. If you feel baffled by the Trinity, join the crowd. History's greatest minds have stood in amazement before a God so great that our puny explanations cannot contain him.

D. The Trinity exalts the Son and the Spirit.
We all know that God the Father is to be worshiped. But what about Jesus Christ? If he is God, should we not also worship him? The answer of course is yes. But that truth leads us back to the Trinity. He is not merely the Son of God but also God the Son. The same thing may be said about the Holy Spirit. He is not just a "force" but a Divine Person. The Third Person of the Trinity is not an "influence" or some vague power.

Let me draw one important inference. Since all Three Persons of the Trinity are equally God, we may pray to any member of the Trinity. That, by the way, is the number one question I have been asked about the Holy Spirit since writing Names of the Holy Spirit. Many Christians simply do not feel comfortable praying to the Spirit even though we often sing songs that are essentially prayers to the Spirit, such as "Spirit of God, descend upon my heart" and "Spirit of the living God, fall afresh on me." Surely if we may sing to the Spirit, we may also pray to him. If he is God, our prayers may be directed to him.

I do agree that Christian prayers will customarily be made to the Father (e.g. The Lord's Prayer). But let us not quibble or imagine that the Father is slighted if we direct our prayers to the Son or the Spirit, according to the moment's need. There is no jealousy among the members of the Trinity, nor could there ever be.

E. The Trinity helps us understand what really happened at the Cross.
At the climax of Jesus' suffering, he cried out, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?" What do those strange, tortured words mean? We have a hint of the answer in that every other time Jesus prayed, he used the term "Father." But at that moment, when he bore the full weight of the sins of the world, when all that is evil and wretched was poured out upon him, in some way we cannot begin to fathom, God—who cannot look upon sin—turned his back on his own Son. Sin as it were (though not in ultimate reality) caused a rupture in the Trinity. Instead of "Father," Jesus cries out, "My God, my God!" It is God speaking to God. The eternal Son cries out to the Father at the moment when the penalty of sin has been laid upon him. If it be asked, how could one man pay for the sins of the entire race, we find the answer in the doctrine of the Trinity. Only an infinite God could bear the sins of the world!

A Doctrine that Unites and Divides

The doctrine of the Trinity has been called the most puzzling doctrine in the Christian faith and the central truth of the Christian faith. Which is it? Inscrutable puzzle or central truth? The answer is, both are true.

This doctrine unites all true Christians and separates us from those who are not Christian. You may believe and still not be a Christian, but if you deny this doctrine in your heart, you are not a Christian at all.

I come now to the end of my sermon. In so doing I end where I began. The Trinity is a doctrine that all Christians believe but no one really understands. That much should be clear from this message. If you try to explain the Trinity, you will lose your mind. But if you deny it, you will lose your soul.

Someone asked Daniel Webster, who happened to be a fervent Christian, "How can a man of your intellect believe in the Trinity?" "I do not pretend fully to understand the arithmetic of heaven now," he replied. That's a good phrase—the arithmetic of heaven.

The Trinity should cause us to bow in humble adoration before a God who is greater than our minds could ever comprehend.

Let us rejoice that we have a Triune God who has provided for Trinitarian salvation. When we were lost in sin, our God acted in every Person of his being to save us. The Father gave the Son, the Son offered himself on the Cross, and the Holy Spirit brought us to Jesus. We were so lost that it took every member of the Godhead to save us.

In 1774, Ignaz Franz wrote a hymn of praise to the Trinity: Holy God, We Praise Your Name. Verse three may serve as an apt conclusion to this message.

"Holy Father, Holy Son, Holy Spirit, Three we name you;
While in essence only one, undivided God we claim you.
Then, adoring, bend the knee, and confess the mystery."

Indeed it is a mystery, and with all the saints, we bend the knee in worship before our great God—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

How to Explain the Trinity

The following is a transcript from the video above with Alistair Begg, 

At best, what we have in terms of the Bible, you don't have, actually, in the Bible, a chapter that you go to that is an explanation of that. You have, if you like, a formulation of that. You have the notion of, the story of the Trinity or the reality of the Trinity is born out just in viewing things. So it's a hard one for a child, but that is, I think, the importance of catechetical teaching, in that we explain to our children, that God is three-in-one and one-in-three. Now, we may try and go to ice and steam and water. We may try and go to the shell, the white, and the yolk, but our children will be clever enough to say that, "I don't think that really gets to it either."

And we have to be honest enough to say, "No, it doesn't, that this is a profound mystery." And yet, it is so clearly revealed that Jesus is in the water being baptized, that the father speaks from heaven, that the holy spirit alights upon him as a dove, and we're there. The reality of his Gethsemane experience is explained so much, the distinction between who he is as the son, and, then, the father looking down upon his son. In fact, I think in one part of the book, and it came to mind because it struck me, I think in one part, Sinclair suggests that when Jesus finally said, "Nevertheless, not my will, but thine be done," that Sinclair says, "And here we have the father singing, 'My Jesus, I love thee. I know thou art mine.'" And it's a wonderful thought, of the interplay between the father and the son, but it's a tough one. - Pastor Alistar Begg

Find inspiration with 15 Bible Verses Every Christian Should Know By Heart HERE for you to download or share with loved ones!

Why Should We Try to Understand the Trinity? Why should we try to understand the Trinity? - Sam Allberry from christianitydotcom2 on GodTube.

As transcribed in the video above, Sam Allberry discusses why we should try to understand the Trinity:

Let me give you a couple of reasons why we should try to understand the Trinity. God has shown us that he is one God in three persons, God has given us that insight for us to know and to understand. Anything God tells us about himself will have practical relevance and application for us as his people, we are made in his image, we live in his creation. The more we understand about him, the more we'll understand about ourselves and the world in which we live. So, a small insight about God can lead to a very big insight about us. 

And, when it comes to something as central and essential to who God is as the Trinity, that must be significant, that must inform how we view him, how we view our lives, living with him. So, the fact that God has revealed it to us means that we are to think about it, to try to understand it, to see what he's said and what that means, rather than just ignore it.

If I was to tell you something very personal about myself that gets to the heart of who I am, and then you were to totally ignore that, it would be rather strange, I've told you that so that you can know me better because of it. And actually, it helps us to get to know God authentically when we understand that he is Trinity. 

Dr. Ray Pritchard is the president of Keep Believing Ministries. He has ministered extensively overseas and is a frequent conference speaker and guest on Christian radio and television talk shows. He is the author of 27 books, including Credo, The Healing Power of Forgiveness, An Anchor for the Soul, and Why Did This Happen to Me? Ray and Marlene, his wife of 35 years, have three sons-Josh, Mark, and Nick. His hobbies include biking, surfing the Internet, and anything related to the Civil War.

This article is part of our larger resource library of terms important to the Christian faith. From heaven and hell to communion and baptism, we want to provide easy-to-read and understand articles that answer your questions about theological terms and their meaning. 

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