11th Century

11th Century

• The expansion of Islam continues to occupy Christian thought and activities.

• 1009--Moslems sack Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem.

• 1054 The East-West Schism. Brewing for centuries, rupture finally comes to a head with the fissure that has lasted to this day.

• 1071--Seljuks conquer Armenia, ending the Byzantine Empire in Asia Minor.

• 1095--Pope Urban II proclaims the First Crusade to reclaim Jerusalem from the Moslems.

• 1099--Crusaders take Jerusalem.

• A century and a half of weak popes ends by the middle of the century, and papal authority begins to increase. Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085), "Hildebrand," moves to reform the church with emphasis on priestly celibacy and complete freedom of the Church from the State.

• Renewal of church through new monastic orders

• 1098--The Reform-minded Cistercian order founded at Citeaux

• William of Normandy conquers England, appointing Lanfranc Archbishop of Canterbury in 1070. Lanfranc reorganizes and reforms the English church.

• Anselm succeeds Lanfranc as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1093. Wrote Why Did God Become a Man? explaining the reasons for Christ's death.

• Musical developments: In 1015 Pomposa Monastery near Ravenna introduces sight singing. By the middle of the century, polyphonic singing replaces Gregorian Chant, the harp arrives in Europe, and the first German Christmas carol is written.