They were armed with bows, and could use both the right hand and the left in hurling stones and shooting arrows out of a bow, even of Saul's brethren of Benjamin.
Even — Of Saul's own tribe: who were moved hereto by God's spirit, by the conscience of their duty to David; and by their observation of God's departure from Saul, and of his special presence with David.
 And Ismaiah the Gibeonite, a mighty man among the thirty, and over the thirty; and Jeremiah, and Jahaziel, and Johanan, and Josabad the Gederathite,
Thirty — Who came attended with thirty valiant Benjamites, and was their commander.
 And David went out to meet them, and answered and said unto them, If ye be come peaceably unto me to help me, mine heart shall be knit unto you: but if ye be come to betray me to mine enemies, seeing there is no wrong in mine hands, the God of our fathers look thereon, and rebuke it.
The God of our fathers — He calls God, the God of our fathers, both his fathers and theirs; thus he minds them, not to deal ill with him; for they were both descendents from the same patriarchs, and servants of the same God. And thus he encourages himself to believe, that God would right him, if he was abused. For he was the God of his fathers; therefore a blessing was entailed upon him: and a God to all Israel in particular, as well as a Judge to all the earth.
 Then the spirit came upon Amasai, who was chief of the captains, and he said, Thine are we, David, and on thy side, thou son of Jesse: peace, peace be unto thee, and peace be to thine helpers; for thy God helpeth thee. Then David received them, and made them captains of the band.
The Spirit — Not only saving graces, but other heroical and generous motions are ascribed to God's spirit, which here stirred up in him a more that ordinary greatness of mind and resolution.
 As he went to Ziklag, there fell to him of Manasseh, Adnah, and Jozabad, and Jediael, and Michael, and Jozabad, and Elihu, and Zilthai, captains of the thousands that were of Manasseh.
As — As he returned from the camp of the Philistines to Ziklag.
 And they helped David against the band of the rovers: for they were all mighty men of valour, and were captains in the host.
Against — Against the Amalekites who had taken and burnt Ziklag, whom David and his six hundred men were now pursuing.
 For at that time day by day there came to David to help him, until it was a great host, like the host of God.
That time — While he was at Ziklag, and in his march to Hebron, and principally at Hebron.
Like — Innumerable, like the stars or angels, both which are called God's hosts.
 The children of Judah that bare shield and spear were six thousand and eight hundred, ready armed to the war.
Six thousand, … — Who came hither in the name of their brethren; for that whole tribe stuck to David.
 And Jehoiada was the leader of the Aaronites, and with him were three thousand and seven hundred;
Jehoida — Not the high-priest, for that was Abiathar, 1 Samuel 23:6, but one of eminent place under him.
 And of the children of Benjamin, the kindred of Saul, three thousand: for hitherto the greatest part of them had kept the ward of the house of Saul.
Kept the ward — Endeavoured to keep the crown in Saul's family.
 And of the half tribe of Manasseh eighteen thousand, which were expressed by name, to come and make David king.
Manasseh — Which was within Jordan: for of the other half beyond Jordan he speaks, verse 37.
By name — Who were not ashamed publickly to own David by putting their names to some paper presented to them for that purpose.
 And of the children of Issachar, which were men that had understanding of the times, to know what Israel ought to do; the heads of them were two hundred; and all their brethren were at their commandment.
The times — They understood public affairs, the temper of the nation, and the tendencies of the present events. And they shewed their wisdom at this time; for as they had adhered to Saul while he lived, as knowing the time was not yet come for David to take possession of the kingdom: and as they could not join David, while Abner lived, and had the command of the other tribes wherewith they were encompassed, so as soon as he was dead, and they had opportunity to declare themselves, they owned David for their king.
 Of Zebulun, such as went forth to battle, expert in war, with all instruments of war, fifty thousand, which could keep rank: they were not of double heart.
Double heart — They were sincerely loyal, and did not dissemble with David, pretending to be for him, while in their hearts they favoured Saul's family. And none had any separate interests, but all were for the public good.