That they gathered themselves together, to fight with Joshua and with Israel, with one accord.
Together — They entered into a league to do this. Tho' they were many kings of different nations, and doubtless of different interests, often at variance with each other, yet they are all determined to unite against Israel. O that Israel would learn this of Canaanites, to sacrifice private interests to the public good, and to lay aside all animosities among themselves, that they may cordially unite against the common enemy.
 And when the inhabitants of Gibeon heard what Joshua had done unto Jericho and to Ai,
Gibeon — A great and royal city of the Hivites.
 They did work wilily, and went and made as if they had been ambassadors, and took old sacks upon their asses, and wine bottles, old, and rent, and bound up;
Been ambassadors — Sent from a far country.
 And they went to Joshua unto the camp at Gilgal, and said unto him, and to the men of Israel, We be come from a far country: now therefore make ye a league with us.
The camp at Gilgal — The place of their head-quarters.
Men of Israel — To those who used to meet in council with Joshua, to whom it belonged to make leagues, even the princes of the congregation.
Now therefore — Because we are not of this people, whom, as we are informed, you are obliged utterly to destroy.
 And the men of Israel said unto the Hivites, Peradventure ye dwell among us; and how shall we make a league with you?
The Hivites — That is, the Gibeonites who were Hivites, Joshua 11:19.
Among us — That is, in this land, and so are of that people with whom we are forbidden to make any league or covenant.
 And they said unto Joshua, We are thy servants. And Joshua said unto them, Who are ye? and from whence come ye?
Thy servants — We desire a league with you upon your own terms; we are ready to accept of any conditions.
From whence came ye — For this free and general concession gave Joshua cause to suspect that they were Canaanites.
 And they said unto him, From a very far country thy servants are come because of the name of the LORD thy God: for we have heard the fame of him, and all that he did in Egypt,
Name of the Lord — Being moved thereunto by the report of his great and glorious nature and works; so they gave them hopes that they would embrace their religion.
In Egypt — They cunningly mention those things only which were done some time ago, and say nothing of dividing Jordan, or the destruction of Jericho and Ai, as if they lived so far off that the fame of those things had not yet reached them.
 And these bottles of wine, which we filled, were new; and, behold, they be rent: and these our garments and our shoes are become old by reason of the very long journey.
The bottles — Leathern bottles.
 And the men took of their victuals, and asked not counsel at the mouth of the LORD.
The men — That is, the princes.
Their victuals — That they might examine the truth of what they said.
The mouth of the Lord — As they ought to have done upon all such weighty occasions. So they are accused of rashness and neglect of their duty. For though it is probable, if God had been consulted, he would have consented to the sparing of the Gibeonites; yet it should have been done with more caution, and an obligation upon them to embrace the true religion. In every business of importance, we should stay to take God along with us, and by the word and prayer consult him. Many a time our affairs miscarry, because we asked not counsel at the mouth of the Lord. Did we acknowledge him in all our ways, they would be more safe, easy and successful.
 And Joshua made peace with them, and made a league with them, to let them live: and the princes of the congregation sware unto them.
To let them live — That is, they should not destroy them. That this league was lawful and obliging, appears, 1. Because Joshua and all the princes, upon the review concluded it so to be, and spared them accordingly. 2. Because God punished the violation of it long after, Joshua 11:19,20, which seems to imply that their utter destruction did not necessarily come upon them by virtue of any peremptory command of God, but by their own obstinate hardness, whereby they refused to make peace with the Israelites.
 And it came to pass at the end of three days after they had made a league with them, that they heard that they were their neighbours, and that they dwelt among them.
Three days — That is, at the last of them, or upon the third day, as it is said, verse 17.
 And the children of Israel journeyed, and came unto their cities on the third day. Now their cities were Gibeon, and Chephirah, and Beeroth, and Kirjathjearim.
And Kirjath-jearim — Which cities were subject to Gibeon, the royal city, chap. 10:2.
 And the children of Israel smote them not, because the princes of the congregation had sworn unto them by the LORD God of Israel. And all the congregation murmured against the princes.
Against the princes — Both from that proneness which is in people to censure the actions of their rulers; and from their desire of the spoil of these cities.
 And the princes said unto them, Let them live; but let them be hewers of wood and drawers of water unto all the congregation; as the princes had promised them.
Unto all the congregation — That is, Let them be public servants, and employed in the meanest offices, (one kind being put for all the rest) for the use of the congregation; to do this partly for the sacrifices and services of the house of God, which otherwise the Israelites themselves must have done; partly for the service of the camp or body of the people; and sometimes, even to particular Israelites.
 And Joshua called for them, and he spake unto them, saying, Wherefore have ye beguiled us, saying, We are very far from you; when ye dwell among us?
Called for them — Probably not only the messengers, but the elders of Gibeon were now present.
 Now therefore ye are cursed, and there shall none of you be freed from being bondmen, and hewers of wood and drawers of water for the house of my God.
Ye are cursed — You shall not escape the curse of God which by divine sentence belongs to all the Canaanites; but only change the quality of it, you shall feel that curse of bondage, which is proper to your race by virtue of that ancient decree, Genesis 9:25.
Bond-men — The slavery, which is upon you shall be entailed on your posterity.
The house of my God — This only service they mention here, because it was their durable servitude, being first in the tabernacle, and then in the temple, whence they were called Nethinim, Ezra 2:43, whereas their servitude to the whole congregation in a great measure ceased when the Israelites were dispersed to their several habitations.
 And now, behold, we are in thine hand: as it seemeth good and right unto thee to do unto us, do.
In thine hand — That is, in thy power to use us as thou wilt.
Unto thee — We refer ourselves to thee and thy own piety, and probity, and faithfulness to thy word and oath; if thou wilt destroy thy humble suppliants, we submit. Let us in like manner submit to our Lord Jesus, and refer ourselves to him; saying, We are in thy hand; do unto us as seemeth right unto thee. Only save our souls: give us our lives for a prey; and let us serve thee, just as thou wilt!
 And Joshua made them that day hewers of wood and drawers of water for the congregation, and for the altar of the LORD, even unto this day, in the place which he should choose.
The altar of the Lord — By which appears, that they were not only to do this service in God's house, but upon all other occasions, as the congregation needed their help.