22:1 Now the 1 feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover.
(1) Christ is taken upon the day of the Passover
rather by the providence of his Father, than by the will of men.
Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the
(2) God by his wonderful providence causes him to
be the minister of our salvation who was the author of our destruction.
22:4 And he went his way, and communed with the
chief priests and a captains, how he
might betray him unto them.
(a) Those that had the charge of keeping the
temple, who were not from among the priests and bishops, as is shown below in
22:6 And he promised, and
sought opportunity to betray him unto them in the b
absence of the multitude.
(b) Without tumult, doing it without the
knowledge of the people who used to follow him: and therefore they indeed
waited patiently until they knew he was alone in the garden.
22:7 3 Then
came the day of unleavened bread, when the passover c
must be killed.
(3) Christ teaches his disciples by an obvious
miracle that although he is going to be crucified, yet nothing is hidden from
him, and therefore that he is going willingly to death.
(c) By the order appointed by the law.
22:8 And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go and
prepare us the d passover, that we may
(d) The lamb which was the symbol of the passover:
And this is said using the figure of speech metonymy, which is often used when
talking about the sacraments.
4 And when the e
hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him.
(4) Christ, having ended the passover according
to the order of the law, forewarns them that this will be his last banquet
with them in terms of this earthly life.
(e) The evening and twilight, at which time this
supper was to be kept.
22:15 And he said unto them, With desire I have
desired to eat this passover with you before I f
(f) I am put to death.
5 And he took bread, and gave thanks,
and brake [it], and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for
you: this do in remembrance of me.
(5) Christ establishes his new covenant and his
communication with us by new symbols.
22:20 Likewise also the cup after supper, saying,
This g cup [is] h
the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you.
(g) Here is a double use of metonymy: for first,
the vessel is taken for that which is contained in the vessel, as the cup is
spoken of for the wine which is within the cup. Second, the wine is called the
covenant or testament, whereas in reality it is but the sign of the testament,
or rather of the blood of Christ by which the testament was made: neither is
it a vain sign, although it is not the same as the thing that it represents.
(h) This word "the" shows the
excellency of the testament, and corresponds to (Jeremiah
31:31) where the new testament is promised.
But, behold, the i hand of him that
betrayeth me [is] with me on the table.
(6) Christ shows again that he goes willingly to
die, although he is not ignorant of Judas' treason.
(i) That is, his practice; the Hebrews used to
speak in this way, as in (2 Samuel
14:19): "Is not the hand of Joab with thee in all this?"
22:22 7 And
truly the Son of man goeth, as it was determined: but woe unto that man by whom
he is betrayed!
(7) Although the decree of God's providence
necessarily comes to pass, yet it does not excuse the fault of those who bring
it to pass.
And there was also a strife among them, which of them should be accounted the
(8) The pastors are not called to rule but to
22:25 And he said unto them, The kings of the
Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them
are called k benefactors.
(k) Have great titles, for so it was the custom
to honour princes with some great titles.
Ye are they which have continued with me in my temptations.
(9) Those who are partakers of the affliction of
Christ will also be partakers of his kingdom.
And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired [to have] you, that
he may l sift [you] as wheat:
(10) We must always think about the ambush that
Satan lays for us.
(l) To toss you and scatter you, and also to cast
But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou art
converted, strengthen thy brethren.
(11) It is through the prayers of Christ that the
elect never utterly fall away from the faith: and because of this they should
encourage one another on.
And he said unto him, Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison, and to
(12) In setting before us the grievous example of
Peter, Christ shows that faith differs much from a vain security.
Then said he unto them, But now, he that hath a purse, let him take [it], and
likewise [his] scrip: and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and
(m) He says all this using an allegory, as if he
said, "O my friends and fellow soldiers, you have lived until now in
relative peace: but now there is at hand a most severe battle to be fought,
and you must therefore lay all other things aside and think about dressing
yourselves in armour." And what this armour is, is shown by his own
example, when he prayed afterward in the garden and reproved Peter for
striking with the sword.
13 And when he was at the place, he said
unto them, Pray that ye enter not into temptation.
(13) Christ has made death acceptable unto us by
overcoming for our sake all the horrors of death, which had the curse of God
And he was withdrawn from them about a stone's cast, and kneeled down, and
(14) Prayers are a sure help against the most
perilous assaults of our enemies.
And being in an n agony he prayed more
earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great o
drops of blood falling down to the ground.
(n) This agony shows that Christ struggled hard
and was in great distress: for Christ struggled hard not only with the fears
of death as other men do (for in this regard many martyrs might seem more
constant then Christ), but also with the fearful judgment of his angry Father,
which is the most fearful thing in the world: and this was because he took the
burden of all our sins upon himself.
(o) These do not only show that Christ was true
man, but also other things which the godly have to consider of, in which the
secret of the redemption of all mankind is contained in the Son of God when he
debased himself to the state of a servant: such things as these no man can
And when he rose up from prayer, and was come to his disciples, he found them
sleeping for sorrow,
(15) Men are utterly sluggish, even in their
And while he yet spake, behold a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of
the twelve, went before them, and drew near unto Jesus to kiss him.
(16) Christ is willingly betrayed and taken so
that by his obedience he might deliver us who were guilty of betraying God's
When they which were about him saw what would follow, they said unto him, Lord,
shall we smite with the sword?
(17) That zeal which carries us out of the bounds
of our God-given position does not please Christ.
Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the
elders, which were come to him, Be ye come out, as against a thief, with swords
(18) Even the very fear of those who took Christ
partly proves their evil conscience, and partly also that all these things
were done by God's providence.
22:53 When I was daily with you in the temple, ye
stretched forth no hands against me: but this is your hour, and the p
power of darkness.
(p) The power that was given to darkness to
oppress the light for a time.
22:54 Then took they him, and led [him], and
brought him into the high priest's house. 19
And Peter followed afar off.
(19) We have to behold in Peter an example both
of the fragility of man's nature, and the singular goodness of God towards
20 And the men that held Jesus mocked
him, and smote [him].
(20) Christ bore the shame that was due for our
And as soon as it was day, the elders of the people and the chief priests and
the scribes came together, and led him into their council, saying,
(21) Christ is wrongly condemned of blasphemy
before the high priest's judgment seat in order that we might be acquitted
before God from the blasphemy which we deserved.