And he called unto him his twelve disciples. At this point Matthew gives the names of the apostles, for a complete list of which, see Matthew 10:2.
Unclean spirits. See Mark 1:23.
10:2 Now the names of the twelve1 apostles2 are these: The first, Simon, who is called Peter3, and Andrew his brother; James the [son] of Zebedee, and John his brother4; AFTER PRAYER JESUS SELECTS TWELVE APOSTLES. (Near Capernaum.) Matthew 10:2-4; Mark 3:13-19; Luke 6:12-16
The twelve. See Mark 3:14.
Apostles. The word "apostle" means "one sent". Its meaning was kindred to the word "ambassador" (2 Corinthians 5:20), the messenger whom a king sent to foreign powers, and also to our modern word "missionary", which also means "one sent". Christ himself was an apostle (Hebrews 3:1), and so sent them (John 20:21). The word "apostle" is translated "messenger" at 2 Corinthians 8:23; Philippians 2:25. The apostles were to be with Jesus, that they might be taught by his words, and that they might become teachers of that word and witnesses as to the life and actions of Jesus. A necessary condition, therefore, to their apostleship was this seeing of Jesus and the consequent ability to testify as to his actions, especially as to his resurrection (Acts 1:8,21; Acts 22:14,15 were from Galilee save Judas Iscariot. Mark and Luke give the names of the apostles at the time when they were chosen, but Matthew gives them at the time when they were sent out.
Simon, who is called Peter. See Mark 3:16.
And Andrew his brother; James the [son] of Zebedee, and John his brother. This selection of brothers suggests that the bonds of nature may strengthen those of grace. See Mark 3:17.
NOTE.--The names of the apostles are recorded four times in the following arrangements and orders. Some think that Matthew divided them into groups of two, so that he may show us who went together when Jesus sent them out in pairs (Mark 6:7). But it is idle to speculate as the differences in arrangement. We note, however, that the twelve are divided into three quaternions, or groups of four, and that each has a fixed leader.
|MATT. X. 2-4.||MARK III. 16-19.||LUKE VI. 14-16.||ACTS I. 13.|
|1||Simon, called Peter,||Simon, surnamed Peter;||Simon, named Peter,||Peter|
|2||and Andrew his brother;||and James the son of Zebedee,||and Andrew his brother,||and John|
|3||James the son of Zebedee,||and John the brother of James;||and James||and James|
|4||and James his brother;||and Andrew,||and John,||and Andrew,|
|5||Philip,||and Philip,||and Philip||Philip|
|6||and Bartholomew;||and Bartholomew,||and Bartholomew,||and Thomas,|
|7||Thomas,||and Matthew,||and Matthew||Bartholomew|
|8||and Matthew the publican;||and Thomas,||and Thomas,||and Matthew,|
|9||James the son of Alphæus,||and James the son of Alphæus,||and James the son of Alphæus||James the son of Alphæus,|
|10||and Thaddæus;||and Thaddæus||and Simon called the Zealot,||and Simon the Zealot|
|11||Simon the Cananæan,||and Simon the Cananæan,||and Judas the son of James,||and Judas the son of James.|
|12||and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him.||and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him.||and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor.|
10:3 Philip1, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James the [son] of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus;
Philip. See John 1:43.
For notes on Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus Thaddaeus, see Mark 3:18.
10:4 Simon the Cananaean1, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him2.
Simon the Cananaean. See Mark 3:18.
Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. See Mark 3:19.
10:5 These twelve Jesus sent forth1, and charged them, saying, Go not into [any] way of the Gentiles, and enter not into any city of the Samaritans:
These twelve Jesus sent forth. See Mark 6:7.
10:6 but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel1.
But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. This first commission "restricted" Christ's messengers to the Jewish people, and the parts of Palestine which they inhabited, but his second commission "impelled" them to go everywhere and to preach to every creature (Mark 16:15). As Jesus himself was sent only to the Jews, so during his days on earth he sent his disciples only to them. Also see Matthew 15:24.
10:7 And as ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven is at hand1.
As ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven is at hand. It was set up about a year later, on the day of Pentecost, under the direction of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:1-4).
10:8 Heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse the lepers, cast out demons: freely ye received, freely give1.
Freely ye received, freely give. Here is the true rule of giving. Paul repeats it at 1 Corinthians 16:2. If we would obey this rule, we would make this a happy world.
10:9 Get you no gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses1; Matthew 10:9,10
Get you no gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses. See Mark 6:8.
10:11 And into whatsoever city or village ye shall enter, search out who in it is worthy; and there abide till ye go forth1.
And there abide till ye go forth. See Mark 6:10.
10:13 And if the house be worthy, let your peace come upon it: but if it be not worthy, let your peace return to you1.
And if the house be worthy, let your peace come upon it: but if it be not worthy, let your peace return to you. The form of salutation on entering a house was, "Peace to this house". The apostles are told to salute each house, and are assured that the peace prayed for shall return to them if the house is not worthy; that is, they shall receive, in this case, the blessing pronounced on the house.
10:14 And whosoever shall not receive you1, nor hear your words, as ye go forth out of that house or that city, shake off the dust of your feet.
And whosoever shall not receive you, etc. See Mark 6:11.
10:15 Verily I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment1, than for that city.
It shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment. See Matthew 11:24 for a comment on similar remarks. God judges all men with reference to their opportunities.
10:16 Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves1: be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves.
I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves. At this point Jesus passes from the first, or temporary, to the second, or final, commission of the apostles, for all the persecutions enumerated were encountered under the latter.
10:17 But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to councils, and in theirs synagogues they will scourge you;
Councils, and . . . synagogues. Both Jewish powers. On the synagogue, see Mark 1:39.
10:18 yea and before governors and kings1 shall ye be brought for my sake, for a testimony to them and to the Gentiles.
Before governors and kings. The phrase indicates Gentile powers, for most all governors and kings were then appointed by Rome.
10:19 But when they deliver you up, be not anxious how or what ye shall speak1: for it shall be given you in that hour what ye shall speak.
Be not anxious how or what ye shall speak. For comment on similar words, see Luke 12:11.
10:21 And brother shall deliver up brother to death1, and the father his child: and children shall rise up against parents, and cause them to be put to death.
Brother shall deliver up brother to death. Jesus here foretells the intense religious bigotry with which his ministers should be opposed. Having foretold persecution, he here predicts actual martyrdom.
10:22 And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake1: but he that endureth to the end, the same shall be saved2.
Ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake. The term "all" is used in its general and not in its absolute sense. The apostles had some few friends among the unbelievers. Jesus gives the exact cause of the hatred. It would not be because of any personal faults or peculiarities, but simply because of adherence to Christ.
But he that endureth to the end, the same shall be saved. Since the persecution was unto death, the endurance which should meet it must be to the end of life.
10:23 But when they persecute you in this city, flee into the next1: for verily I say unto you, Ye shall not have gone through the cities of Israel, till the Son of man be come.
When they persecute you in this city, flee into the next. The apostles were not to meet obduracy with obduracy. Moving as swiftly as they could along the line of least resistance, they would not be able to evangelize all the Jewish cities before the time set for their desolation--before the Son of man should come in the demonstration of his judicial power and destroy the Jewish nationality.
10:25 It is enough for the disciple that he be as his teacher, and the servant as his lord. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub2, how much more them of his household!
It is enough for the disciple that he should be as his teacher. Jesus applied similar words to the Jewish teachers. See Luke 6:40.
If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub, etc. Jesus here warns the apostles that they cannot expect better treatment than he himself received. Nor should they ask exemption from what he himself suffered.
10:28 And be not afraid of them that kill the body1, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.
Be not afraid of them that kill the body. See Luke 12:4.
10:31 Fear not therefore1: ye are of more value than many sparrows. Matthew 10:31
Fear not therefore. See Luke 1:30.
10:33 But whosoever shall deny me before men1, him will I also deny before my Father who is in heaven.
Whosoever shall deny me before men. For comment on similar remarks, see Luke 12:8.
10:36 and a man's foes [shall be] they of his own household1.
A man's foes [shall be] they of his own household. For comment on similar language, see Luke 12:53.
10:37 He that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me1; and he that loveth son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me.
He that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me. Love for the old religion would make the members of the Jewish and pagan families persecute those who apostasized from it to give their hearts to Christ. But if the Jew and the pagan thus held "their" religions at a higher value than the ties of kindred, much more should the Christian value his religion above these ties.
10:38 And he that doth not take his cross and follow after me, is not worthy of me1.
And he that doth not take his cross and follow after me, is not worthy of me. This is doubtless an allusion to the manner of his death, and being the first of the kind it must have been very puzzling to his disciples, unless explained by prior words of Jesus, of which we have no record. As such allusion its full meaning is this: "If I bear for each the vicarious cross and suffer for each the full measure of the divine displeasure, then each should be willing cheerfully to follow me that he may obtain the benefits of my sacrifice, and if the light cross of human displeasure deter him from this, he is not worthy of me".
10:39 He that findeth his life shall lose it; and he that loseth his life for my sake shall find it1.
He that findeth his life shall lose it; and he that loseth his life for my sake shall find it. Jesus declares that all self-seeking is self-losing. He that makes his own life the chief object of his endeavor really fails the more he seems to succeed. He who saves and husbands his powers to expend them on those lower carnal joys which a sinner calls "life" shall lose those higher spiritual joys which God calls "life", and vice versa. For a comment on similar expression, see Mark 8:35.
10:40 He that receiveth you receiveth me, and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me1.
He that receiveth you receiveth me, and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me. Having depicted in all their darkness the persecutions which awaited the apostles, Jesus here, by an easy transition, proceeds to declare the honor of their apostleship in that they were representatives directly of Christ, and indirectly of the Father.
10:41 He that receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet1 shall receive a prophet's reward2: and he that receiveth a righteous man in the name of a righteous man shall receive a righteous man's reward. Matthew 10:41,42
He that receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet. That is, because he is a prophet.
Shall receive a prophet's reward, etc. Whoever honors a prophet, a righteous man, or a disciple, as such recognizes that person's relation to God as the ground of that act; and to that extent honors God in the act, just as he who performs a similar act in the name of a friend thereby honors that friend. A prophet's reward is not synonymous, however, with final salvation, for salvation is a matter of grace and not of reward.