19:1 Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him1.
Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him. See Mark
19:2 And the
soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put it on his head1,
and arrayed him in a purple garment;
And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put it on his head,
and arrayed him in a purple garment. See Mark
19:3 and they came unto him, and
said, Hail, King of the Jews1! and they struck him with
And said, Hail, King of the Jews! See Mark
19:4 And Pilate went out again, and saith
unto them, Behold, I bring him out to you, that ye may
know that I find no crime in him1.
That ye may know that I find no crime in him. Those having our
modern sense of justice would have said that Pilate brought Jesus out thus
"because he had found no crime in him". But scourging was little
thought of in that place and day (Acts
22:24). If Pilate had found Jesus guilty, he would have condemned him at
once. As it was, he sought to return Jesus to the Sanhedrin as having
committed no crime of which the Roman law could take note.
19:5 Jesus therefore came out, wearing the
crown of thorns and the purple garment. And [Pilate] saith unto them, Behold,
Behold, the man! It was Pilate's original proposition to scourge
Jesus and let him go (Luke
23:16). Having already scourged him, he now hoped to effect his release.
Presenting our Lord in this state of abject humiliation, he feels that he
has removed him from every suspicion of royalty. He speaks of Jesus as no
longer a king, but a mere man. Pilate's words, however, have a prophetic
color, somewhat like those uttered by Caiaphas. All those of subsequent ages
have looked and must continue to look to Jesus as the ideal of manhood. The
"Ecce Homo" of Pilate is in some sense an echo of the words of the
Father when he said, "This is my Son, my chosen: hear ye him" (Matthew
9:35). In Jesus we behold the true man, the Second Adam (1 Corinthians
19:6 When therefore the chief priests and
the officers saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify
[him], crucify [him]1! Pilate
saith unto them, Take him yourselves, and crucify him: for I find no crime in
They cried out, saying, Crucify [him], crucify [him]! Thus Pilate's
expectation came to naught, for not one of the Jewish rulers ever wavered in
their demand for crucifixion.
Pilate saith unto them, Take him yourselves, and crucify him: for I
find no crime in him. In this sentence, "ye" and "I"
are both emphatic; for Pilate wishes to draw a contrast between himself and
the Jewish rulers. His words are not a permission to crucify, but a bit of
taunting irony, as if he said: "I the judge have found him innocent,
but ye seem to lack the wit to see that the case is ended. If ye are so much
superior to the judge that ye can ignore his decision, proceed without him;
crucify him yourselves".
19:7 The Jews answered him, We
have a law, and by that law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of
We have a law, and by that law he ought to die, because he made himself
the Son of God. Perceiving that Pilate was taunting them, and
practically accusing them to attempting to put an innocent man to death,
they defended themselves nu revealing the fact that in addition to the
charges that they had preferred against Jesus, they had found him clearly
guilty and worthy of death on another charge; viz.: that of blasphemy (Leviticus
24:16). They had made no mention of this fact because Pilate was under
no obligation to enforce their law; but they mentioned it now to justify
their course. They probably felt sure that Jesus himself would convince
Pilate of the truth of this latter accusation if Pilate questioned him.
19:8 When Pilate therefore heard this
saying, he was the more afraid;
When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was the more afraid.
The words of Jesus at John
18:37, and the message from his wife had already filled Pilate with
fear, and this saying added to it because the Roman and Grecian mythologies
told of many incarnations; and influenced by the calm presence of Jesus,
Pilate readily considered the possibility of such a thing.
19:9 and he
entered into the Praetorium again1, and saith unto Jesus,
Whence art thou? But Jesus gave him no answer.
And he entered into the Praetorium again. Taking Jesus with him for
And saith unto Jesus, Whence art thou? But Jesus gave him no answer.
Pilate sought to know whether Jesus were of heaven or of earth; but Jesus
did not answer, for the motive of the question was not right. Pilate did not
wish an answer that he might give or withhold worship; but that he might
know how strenuously he should defend Jesus. But innocent life is to be
defended at all hazards, and it matters not whether it be human or divine,
Pilate, therefore, already knew enough to enable him to discharge his
19:10 Pilate therefore saith unto him,
Speakest thou not unto me? Knowest thou not that I have
power to release thee, and have power to crucify thee1?
Knowest thou not that I have power to release thee, and have power to
crucify thee? Pilate intimates that Jesus should treat his questions
with more courtesy since his good will and favor are not to be despised. But
the words lay bare the corrupt heart of Pilate, and form a prophecy of the
sin which he committed. Judges must hear and give sentence according to
truth, uninfluenced by good will or favor. But Pilate, to please the Jews,
crucified Jesus, reversing the sentence which he here suggests that he might
render to please Jesus.
19:11 Jesus answered him, Thou wouldest
have no power against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he
that delivered me unto thee hath greater sin.
Therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin.
Judas is spoken of as having delivered Jesus (John
18:2,5)--the Greek word "paradidomi" being translated both
"betrayed" and "delivered"--but Judas did not deliver to
Pilate, so Caiaphas, as the representative of the Sanhedrin, is here meant;
and Pilate's sin is contrasted with that of the rulers. Both of them sinned
in abusing their office (the power derived from above) (Psalms
13:1); but Pilate's sin stopped here. He had no acquaintance with Jesus
to give him the possibility of other powers--those of love or hatred,
worship or rejection. The members of the Sanhedrin had these powers which
arose from a personal knowledge of Jesus, and they abused them by hating and
rejecting him, thereby adding to their guilt. Pilate condemned the innocent
when brought before him, but the Sanhedrin searched out and arrested the
innocent that they might enjoy condemning him.
19:12 Upon this
Pilate sought to release him1: but
the Jews cried out, saying, If thou release this man, thou art not Caesar's
friend2: every one that maketh
himself a king speaketh against Caesar3.
Upon this Pilate sought to release him. As we have seen, Pilate had
before this tried to win the consent of the rulers that Jesus be released,
but that which John here indicates was probably an actual attempt to set
Jesus free. He may have begun by unloosing the hands of Jesus, or some such
But the Jews cried out, saying, If thou release this man, thou art not
Caesar's friend. Whatever Pilate's demonstration was it was immediately
met by a counter one on the part of the rulers. They raise a cry which the
politic Pilate cannot ignore.
Every one that maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar.
Taking up the political accusation (which they had never abandoned), they
give it a new turn by prompting Pilate to view it from Caesar's standpoint.
Knowing the unreasoning jealousy, suspicion, and cruelty of the emperor,
Pilate saw at once that these unscrupulous Jews could make out of the
present occasion a charge against him which would cost him his position, if
not his life.
19:13 When Pilate therefore heard these
words, he brought Jesus out, and sat down on the
judgment-seat1 at a place called
The Pavement, but in Hebrew, Gabbatha2.
He brought Jesus out, and sat down on the judgment-seat. Pilate had
already again and again declared Jesus innocent. He now mounts the
judgment-seat that he may formally reverse himself and condemn him.
At a place called The Pavement, but in Hebrew, Gabbatha. The
apostle as an eyewitness fixes by its two names the exact spot where this
awful decision was rendered.
19:14 Now it was
the Preparation of the passover1: it
was about the sixth hour2. And he
saith unto the Jews, Behold, your King3!
Now it was the Preparation of the passover. See John
It was about the sixth hour. It is likely that John uses the Roman
method of counting time, and means six a.m. See John
4:6. John notes also the exact hour day and hour.
And he saith unto the Jews, Behold, your King! As he had tried to
waken their compassion by saying, "Behold, the man"! (John
19:5), so he now made a final attempt to shame them by saying,
"Behold, your King"!
19:15 They therefore cried out, Away with
[him], away with [him], crucify him! Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify
your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king
The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar. Carried
away by the strong emotions of the moment, the official organs of the Jewish
theocracy proclaimed Caesar to be their only king, thus yielding with Jesus
their claims to independence and their hopes in a Messiah. This is a most
significant fact. When their ancestors rejected Jehovah as their king (1 Samuel
12:12), their faithful prophet, Samuel, warned them what the king of
their choice would do, and what they should suffer under him. Thus Jesus
also foretold what this Caesar of their choice would do to them (Luke
23:27-31). They committed themselves to the tender mercies of Rome, and
one generation later Rome trod them in the winepress of her wrath.
19:16 Then therefore he delivered him
unto them to be crucified.
Then therefore he delivered him to them to be crucified. See Mark
19:17 They took Jesus therefore: and he
went out, bearing the cross for himself, unto the place
called The place of a skull, which is called in Hebrew, Golgotha1:
THE CRUCIFIXION. A. ON THE WAY TO THE CROSS. (Within and without Jerusalem.
Friday morning.) Mark
Unto the place called The place of a skull, which is called in Hebrew,
Golgotha. See Mark
19:18 where they
crucified him1, and with him two
others, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst2.
THE CRUCIFIXION. B. JESUS CRUCIFIED AND REVILED. HIS THREE SAYINGS DURING
FIRST THREE HOURS. (Friday morning from nine o'clock till noon.) Matthew
Where they crucified him. See Mark
And with him two others, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.
19:19 And Pilate
wrote a title also, and put it on the cross1. And there
was written, JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS.
And Pilate wrote a title also, and put it on the cross See Mark
19:20 This title therefore read many of
the Jews, for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city; and
it was written in Hebrew, [and] in Latin, [and] in Greek1.
And it was written in Hebrew, [and] in Latin, [and] in Greek. These
three language were respectively those of philosophy, law, and religion; but
Pilate made use of them because all three were spoken by people then in
19:21 The chief priests of the Jews
therefore said to Pilate, Write not, The King of the
Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews1.
Write not, The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the
Jews. The rulers smarted under this title which Pilate had tauntingly
written. They had insisted that Jesus' kingship was dangerous enough to
justify his crucifixion; but now (if politically and temporally interpreted)
they admit that his kingship was an idle claim, a mere matter of words.
19:23 The soldiers therefore, when they
had crucified Jesus, took his garments and made four parts, to every soldier a
part; and also the coat: now the coat was without seam,
woven from the top throughout2.
The soldiers . . . took his garments and made four parts, to every
soldier a part; and also the coat. See Mark
Now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout. This
was the tunic or undergarment in two pieces, which were fastened at the
shoulders by clasps; but Josephus tells us that the tunic of the high priest
was an exception to this rule, being woven without seam (Ant. 3:7.4). Thus
in dividing the Lord's garments, they found a suggestion of his high
19:24 They said therefore one to another,
Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture
might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my
garments among them, And upon my vesture did they cast lots1.
They parted my garments among them, And upon my vesture did they cast
lots. See Psalms
19:25 These things therefore the soldiers
did. But there were standing by the cross of Jesus his
mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the [wife] of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene1.
But there were standing by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his
mother's sister, Mary the [wife] of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. For
comment on these four women, see Mark
15:40, additional note there.
19:26 When Jesus therefore saw his
mother, and the disciple standing by whom he loved1,
he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son2!
The disciple standing by whom he loved. John.
Woman, behold thy son! By using the title "woman", Jesus
addressed his mother at the end of his ministry with the same word which he
had used at its beginning. See John
2:4. Thus he cut her off from all parental authority over him.
19:27 Then saith
he to the disciple, Behold, thy mother1! And
from that hour the disciple took her unto his own [home]2.
Then saith he to the disciple, Behold, thy mother! In this last
hour our Lord bestows upon his helpless mother the disciple whom he loved,
who was then in the flower of his manhood.
And from that hour the disciple took her unto his own [home]. All
of Christ's disciples are thus appointed by him protectors of the helpless,
but few recognize the behest as John did.
19:28 After this Jesus, knowing that all
things are now finished, that the scripture might be accomplished, saith, I
THE CRUCIFIXION. C. DARKNESS THREE HOURS. AFTER FOUR MORE SAYINGS, JESUS
EXPIRES. STRANGE EVENTS ATTENDING HIS DEATH. Matthew
I thirst. For comment on Jesus' physical condition, see Mark
19:29 There was set there a vessel full
of vinegar: so they put a sponge full of the vinegar
upon hyssop, and brought it to his mouth1.
So they put a sponge full of the vinegar upon hyssop, and brought it to
his mouth. See Mark
19:30 When Jesus therefore had received
the vinegar, he said, It is finished1:
and he bowed his head, and gave up his spirit2.
It is finished. Jesus had come, had ministered, had suffered, and
had conquered. There now remained but the simple act of taking possession of
the citadel of the grave, and the overthrowing of death. By his
righteousness Jesus had triumphed in man's behalf and the mighty task was
And he bowed his head, and gave up his spirit. See John
10:18. See Mark
15:37 for comparison.
19:31 The Jews therefore, because it was the
Preparation1, that the bodies
should not remain on the cross upon the sabbath2 (for the
day of that sabbath was a high [day]), asked of Pilate
that their legs might be broken3, and
[that] they might be taken away4.
THE CRUCIFIXION. D. JESUS FOUND TO BE DEAD. HIS BODY BURIED AND GUARDED IN THE
The Preparation. See Mark
That the bodies should not remain on the cross upon the sabbath.
The Romans left the bodies of criminals hanging upon the cross until beasts
and birds of prey, or putrefaction, removed the, But the Jewish law forbade
that a body should hang over night; for a dead body was accursed, and so the
day following might be polluted by the curse which attached to it (Deuteronomy
10:26 and Josephus, Wars 4:5.2).
Asked of Pilate that their legs might be broken. The context
suggests that the Jews had grown lax with regard to this law on account of
the trouble of obtaining the consent from the Romans required to carry it
out. But as the Sabbath in this instance was that of the passover week, and
as they were ready enough to do anything to show that Jesus was an
extraordinary criminal, they asked Pilate that their law might be observed.
And [that] they might be taken away. Instead of killing the
criminals, they broke their legs, which rendered recovery impossible, since
putrefaction almost immediately set it.
one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side1, and
straightway there came out blood and water2.
Howbeit one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side. To
insure death in case they might be mistaken.
And straightway there came out blood and water. Many able men have
argued learnedly that this flow of blood and water was evidence that Jesus
died of a ruptured, or literally broken, heart; but they confess themselves
involved in difficulties, for it is hard to reconcile the idea that Jesus
died a voluntary death with the idea that he died of any natural cause
whatever. Can anything be at once natural and supernatural.
19:35 And he
that hath seen hath borne witness, and his witness is true1:
and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye also may
And he that hath seen hath borne witness, and his witness is true.
John's asservation that he was an eyewitness of this shows that he attached
importance to it. To him the body of Jesus gave evidence that it differed
from other dead bodies. We enter with hesitancy the realm of symbolism,
knowing how flagrantly it is abused, but we offer this as a suggestion.
Jesus died for our sins, and his death was therefore to provide a means for
the cleansing of sin. But, under the terms of his gospel, sins are visibly
and physically washed away by water, and invisibly and spiritually by blood
And he knoweth that he saith true, that ye also may believe. Now,
since both these means were seen by a faithful witness to issue from the
side of our crucified Lord, contrary to the ordinary law and course of
nature, we have additional reason to believe that things out of the course
of nature, namely, the cleansing of sin, etc., were accomplished by his
19:36 For these things came to pass, that
the scripture might be fulfilled, A bone of him shall
not be broken1.
A bone of him shall not be broken. See Psalms
19:37 And again another scripture saith, They
shall look on him whom they pierced1.
They shall look on him whom they pierced. See Zechariah
12:10. Even after his death divine power went on fulfilling the
prophecies concerning Jesus. He hangs upon the cross as one of a group of
three, yet, in the twinkling of an eye, he is separated from the other two
by the fulfillment of a brace of prophecies which point him out as the
chosen of God.
19:39 And there
came also Nicodemus, he who at the first came to him by night1,
bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes2,
about a hundred pounds3.
And there came also Nicodemus, he who at the first came to him by night.
Bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes. Myrrh was a resin and the
aloe was pulverized wood. Both were aromatic (Psalms
45:8). The spices were wrapped between the folds of the linen in order
to partially embalm the body.
About a hundred pounds. About 1,200 ounces.
19:40 So they
took the body of Jesus, and bound it in linen cloths with the spices, as the
custom of the Jews is to bury1.
So they took the body of Jesus, and bound it in linen cloths with the
spices, as the custom of the Jews is to bury. Thus two members of the
Sanhedrin unite to bury Jesus, each showing reverence in his own way: Joseph
by buying a sindon instead of cheaper cloth (Mark
15:46), and Nicodemus by a wonderful wealth of spices (John
19:39). Possibly the heart of Nicodemus smote him for his tardiness in
honoring Christ, and he desired to appease his conscience by giving the Lord
a royal burial.
19:41 Now in the place where he was
crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new
tomb wherein was never man yet laid1.
And in the garden a new tomb wherein was never man yet laid. See Matthew
19:42 There then because of the Jews'
Preparation (for the tomb was nigh at hand)1
they laid Jesus.
(For the tomb was nigh at hand). See Luke