And it came to pass, when Rehoboam had established the kingdom, and had strengthened himself, he forsook the law of the LORD, and all Israel with him.
And all Israel — So called, because they forsook God, as Israel had done.
 And it came to pass, that in the fifth year of king Rehoboam Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, because they had transgressed against the LORD,
Fifth year — Presently after the apostacy of the king and people, which was in the fourth year.
 With twelve hundred chariots, and threescore thousand horsemen: and the people were without number that came with him out of Egypt; the Lubims, the Sukkiims, and the Ethiopians.
Lubims — A people of Africk bordering upon Egypt.
Sukkiims — A people living in tents, as the word signifies; and such there were not far from Egypt, both in Africk and in Arabia.
Ethiopians — Either those beyond Egypt, or the Arabians.
 And when the LORD saw that they humbled themselves, the word of the LORD came to Shemaiah, saying, They have humbled themselves; therefore I will not destroy them, but I will grant them some deliverance; and my wrath shall not be poured out upon Jerusalem by the hand of Shishak.
Some deliverance — I will give some stop to the course of my wrath, which was ready to be poured forth upon them to their utter destruction. Those who acknowledge God is righteous in afflicting them, shall find him gracious.
 Nevertheless they shall be his servants; that they may know my service, and the service of the kingdoms of the countries.
May know — That they may experimentally know the difference between my yoke and the yoke of a foreign and idolatrous prince.
 And when he humbled himself, the wrath of the LORD turned from him, that he would not destroy him altogether: and also in Judah things went well.
Went well — The began to recruity themselves, and regain some degree of their former prosperity.
 And he did evil, because he prepared not his heart to seek the LORD.
Did evil — Or, settled not, although he humbled himself, for a season, yet he quickly relapsed into sin, because his heart was not right with God.