1:1 Now it came to pass in the days of a Ahasuerus, (this [is] Ahasuerus which reigned, from India even unto Ethiopia, [over] an b hundred and seven and twenty provinces:)
The Argument - Because of the variety of names, by which they used to call
their kings, and the number of years in which the Hebrews and the Greeks vary,
various authors write concerning that Ahasuerus but is seems in (Daniel
6:1,9:1) that he was Darius king of the Medes and son of Astyages also
called Ahasuerus which was a name of honour and signified great and chief as
chief head. In this is declared the great mercies of God toward his church:
who never fails them in their greatest dangers, but when all hope of worldly
help fades, he stirs up some, by whom he sends comfort and deliverance. In
this also is described the ambition, pride and cruelty of the wicked when they
come to honour and their sudden fall when they are at their highest and how
God preserves and prefers them who are zealous of his glory and have a care
and love for their brethren.
(a) Also called Darius, who was now the favourite
monarch and had the government of the Medes, Persians and Chaldeans. Some
think he was Darius Hystaspis also called Artaxerxes.
6:1) makes mention of only 120 leaving out the number that are imperfect
as the scripture uses in various places.
1:2 [That] in those days, when the king Ahasuerus c
sat on the throne of his kingdom, which [was] in Shushan the palace,
(c) That is, had rest and quietness.
[Where were] white, green, and blue, [hangings], fastened with cords of fine
linen and purple to silver rings and pillars of marble: the d
beds [were of] gold and silver, upon a pavement of red, and blue, and white, and
(d) Which they used in those countries instead of
1:7 And they gave [them] drink in vessels of gold,
(the vessels being diverse one from another,) and royal wine in abundance,
according to the e state of the king.
(e) As was befitting for so magnificent a king.
1:8 And the drinking [was] according to the law; none
did f compel: for so the king had
appointed to all the officers of his house, that they should do according to
every man's pleasure.
(f) No one was forced to drink more than it
1:10 On the g
seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine, he commanded
Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, and Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, the seven
chamberlains that served in the presence of Ahasuerus the king,
(g) Which was the last day of the feast that the
king made for the people as in (Esther
the king said to the wise men, h which
knew the times, (for so [was] the king's manner toward all that knew law and
(h) Who had experience in things as they had
learned by diligent marking in continuance of time.
1:14 And the next unto him [was] Carshena, Shethar,
Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, [and] Memucan, the seven princes of Persia
and Media, which saw the i king's
face, [and] which sat the first in the kingdom;)
(i) Who were his chief counsellors that always
had access to him.
1:16 And Memucan answered
before the king and the princes, Vashti the queen hath not done k
wrong to the king only, but also to all the princes, and to all the people that
[are] in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus.
(k) By her disobedience she has given an example
to all women to do the same to their husbands.
1:17 For [this] l
deed of the queen shall come abroad unto all women, so that they shall despise
their husbands in their eyes, when it shall be reported, The king Ahasuerus
commanded Vashti the queen to be brought in before him, but she came not.
(l) That is, her disobedience.
1:18 [Likewise] shall the m
ladies of Persia and Media say this day unto all the king's princes, which
have heard of the deed of the queen. Thus [shall there arise] too much contempt
(m) Meaning, that they would take the first
opportunity to do the same and the rest of the women would also do the same.
1:19 If it please the king, let there go a royal
commandment from him, and let it be written among the laws of the Persians and
the Medes, that it be not altered, That Vashti come n
no more before king Ahasuerus; and let the king give her royal estate unto
another that is better than she.
(n) Let her be divorced and another made queen.
1:20 And when the king's decree which he shall
make shall be published throughout all his empire, (for it is o
great,) all the wives shall give to their husbands honour, both to great and
(o) For he had under him a hundred and
1:22 For he sent letters into
all the king's provinces, into every province according to the writing
thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should p
bear rule in his own house, and that [it] should be published according to the
language of every people.
(p) That is, that the wife should be subject to
the husband and at his commandment.