28:1 Now late on the sabbath day, as it began to dawn toward the first [day] of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre. ANGELS ANNOUNCE THE RESURRECTION TO CERTAIN WOMEN. PETER AND JOHN ENTER THE EMPTY TOMB. (Joseph's Garden. Sunday, very early.) Matthew 28:1-8; Mark 16:1-8; Luke 24:1-8,12; John 20:1-10
28:2 And behold, there was a great
earthquake; for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled
away the stone, and sat upon it.
An angel of the Lord . . . sat upon it. The angel sat upon the
stone that the Roman guards might make no attempt to reclose the tomb.
28:4 and for fear of him the
watchers1 did quake, and became as dead men.
The watchers. The Roman soldiers on guard.
28:5 And the angel answered and said unto
the women, Fear not ye1; for I
know that ye seek Jesus, who hath been crucified.
Fear not ye. See Luke
28:6 He is not here; for he is risen, even
as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay1.
Come, see the place where the Lord lay. See Mark
28:7 And go
quickly, and tell his disciples1, He is risen from the
dead; and lo, he goeth before you into Galilee; there shall ye see him: lo, I
have told you.
Go quickly, and tell his disciples, etc. See Mark
28:9 And behold,
Jesus met them1, saying, All hail2.
And they came and took hold of his feet, and worshipped
FIRST AND SECOND APPEARANCES OF THE RISEN CHRIST. THE RESURRECTION REPORTED TO
THE APOSTLES. (Jerusalem. Sunday morning.) Matthew
And behold, Jesus met them. The narrative turns to take up the
account of the other women.
All hail. This was a customary salutation. But the old formula took
on new significance, for the Greek word "chairo" means
And they came and took hold of his feet, and worshipped him. This
delay, permitted to them, and denied to Mary (John
20:17), probably explains why she became the first messenger, though the
other women were first to leave the tomb.
28:10 Then saith Jesus unto them, Fear
not1: go tell my brethren2
that they depart into Galilee, and there shall they see
Fear not. See Luke
Go tell my brethren. This is the first time the word
"brethren" is applied by our Lord to his disciples.
That they depart into Galilee, and there shall they see me. Thus
Jesus reiterates the instruction already given by the angel (Matthew
28:7). The repetition may be due to the reticence of the women remarked
by Mark by the key words "and they said nothing to any one" (Mark
16:8). The women may have been hesitating whether they should tell the
28:11 Now while
they were going1, behold, some of
the guard2 came into the city, and told
unto the chief priests all the things that were come to pass3.
SOME OF THE GUARDS REPORT TO THE JEWISH RULERS. Matthew
Now while they were going. While Joanna and the group of women with
her were on their way to tell the apostles that they had seen Jesus (Matthew
Some of the guard. Not all.
Told unto the chief priests all the things that were come to pass.
Esteeming it folly to guard an empty tomb, the soldiers went to their
barracks, while their officers returned to those who had placed them on
guard to report what had happened. They rightly judged that the plain truth
was their best defense. They could not be expected to contend against
earthquakes and angels. Their report implies that they saw Jesus leave the
tomb, and after the angel opened it.*
*NOTE.--We fail to see any such implication. In our opinion, Jesus had
already departed from the tomb when the angel came. The tomb was not opened
to let the Lord out, but to let the disciples in, that they might see as
soon as possible one of the chief evidences of the resurrection (Matthew
20:19,26). Jesus did not need that one open doors for him (John
20:19), but the disciples had such a need (Mark
16:3). But it seems to us contrary to Scripture precedent that these
unbelieving soldiers should see the risen Christ, for he did not appear to
the unbelieving so far as the record shows, and the implication is that the
same principle which made Jesus refuse the testimony of demons made him also
decline to let unbelievers become witnesses to his resurrection (Acts
10:40,41).--Philip Y. Pendleton.
28:12 And when
they were assembled with the elders1, and had taken
counsel, they gave much money unto the soldiers,
When they were assembled with the elders. This was evidently not a
full, but a select, council of the Sanhedrin hastily summoned.
They gave much money to the soldiers. They willfully shut their
eyes to the fact that Jesus had risen, and proceed to purchase a lie to
subvert the truth.
28:13 saying, Say
ye, His disciples came by night, and stole him away while we slept1.
Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole him away while we slept.
Unrepentant, despite the many evidences that they had done wrong, they
proceed to further invoke the wrath of God. Their lie is doubly apparent
upon its face: (1) It would have been practically impossible for men to have
rifled such a tomb without waking a guard set to protect it. (2) It is
absolutely impossible for men to have known what had occurred while they
28:14 And if this
come to the governor's ears, we will persuade him, and rid you of care1.
If this come to the governor's ears, we will persuade him, and rid you
of care. It was a capital offense for a Roman soldier to sleep while on
guard; therefore, if Pilate heard that they had done this thing, it would
require "persuasion" to make him overlook the offense. Possibly
the Jews thought that Pilate was sufficiently involved with them to be ready
to aid them to hush the story of the resurrection, especially if they
confessed to him that they themselves had invented the lie which the
28:15 So they
took the money, and did as they were taught1: and this
saying was spread abroad among the Jews, [and continueth] until this day2.
So they took the money, and did as they were taught. The lesson was
short and simple; the reward, large and desirable.
This saying was spread abroad among the Jews, [and continueth] until
this day. The words seem to indicate that it was published more largely
than simply within the walls of Jerusalem. In his dialogue with Trypho,
which was written about A.D. 170, Justin Martyr says that the Jews dispersed
the story by means of special messengers sent to every country. The fear
which they expressed to Pilate (Matthew
27:64), lends credibility to this statement
28:16 But the
eleven disciples went into Galilee1, unto the mountain
where Jesus had appointed them.
28:16,17 EIGHTH APPEARANCE OF JESUS. (A mountain in Galilee) Matthew
28:16,17; 1 Corinthians
But the eleven disciples went into Galilee. Though Matthew speaks
of only eleven being present at this appearance, yet as it was the
oft-promised meeting by appointment and as the women and disciples generally
shared in the promise (Matthew
28:7-10), we have no doubt that it was the meeting mentioned by Paul (1 Corinthians
28:17 And when they saw him, they
worshipped [him]; but some doubted1.
But some doubted. As to the doubts, we may explain them in three
ways: (1) Among so large a number as five hundred (1 Corinthians
15:6), some would likely be skeptical. (2) It would take Jesus some time
to draw near enough to all to convince each one of his identity. Some,
therefore, would doubt until they were thus convinced by Jesus coming to
them and speaking to them, as the first clause of the next section (Matthew
28:18) shows that he did. (3) Matthew records no other appearance to the
apostles save this one, and it seems to us reasonable to think that he here
notes the doubts of Thomas (John
20:24,25), and connects them with the appearance of Jesus generally. He
could not well say "had doubted", for he records no other
appearance where they had opportunity to doubt. The history of the eleven
sustains this view, for there were doubters among them at Pentecost.
According to Paul, many of these brethren were still alive when he wrote his
epistle to the Corinthians, which is commonly accepted to have been in the
spring of A.D. 57.
28:18 And Jesus came to them and spake
unto them, saying, All authority hath been given unto
me in heaven and on earth1.
28:18-20 THE GREAT COMMISSION GIVEN. (Time and place same as last
All authority hath been given unto me in heaven and on earth.
Neither the word "power" nor the word "authority"
adequately translated Christ's word "exousia". It means all the
right of absolute authority, and all the force of absolute power. It is a
most transcendent claim which Jesus utters here. All authority in heaven!
Paul's qualification of these words in 1 Corinthians
15:27,28, or their counterpart in Psalms
8:6, magnifies instead of detracting from their wonderful import, for he
deems its necessary to state that the Father himself is not subject to the
Son. Surely in connection with this marvelous celestial power, his dominion
over out tiny earth would not need to be mentioned if it were not that we,
its inhabitants, are very limited in our conception of things, and require
exceedingly plain statements.
28:19 Go ye1
make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them3 into
the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit:
Go ye. See Mark
Therefore. This word shows that Jesus rests his command on his
divine authority (Matthew
And make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them. The
structure of the sentence in the original Greek shows that it is the
disciples and not the nations who are to be baptized; according to the
commission, therefore, one must be made a disciple before he can be
baptized. See Mark
28:20 teaching them to observe all things
whatsoever I commanded you: and lo, I am with you
always, even unto the end of the world1.
I am with you always, even unto the end of the world. This is a
promise not of bare companionship, but of full sympathy and support. (Exodus
43:2). The duration of this promise shows that it is intended for all