God Gives Manna
16 1 On the fifteenth day of the second month after they had left Egypt, the whole company of Israel moved on from Elim to the Wilderness of Sin which is between Elim and Sinai. 2 The whole company of Israel complained against Moses and Aaron there in the wilderness. 3 The Israelites said, "Why didn't God let us die in comfort in Egypt where we had lamb stew and all the bread we could eat? You've brought us out into this wilderness to starve us to death, the whole company of Israel!" 4 God said to Moses, "I'm going to rain bread down from the skies for you. The people will go out and gather each day's ration. I'm going to test them to see if they'll live according to my Teaching or not. 5 On the sixth day, when they prepare what they have gathered, it will turn out to be twice as much as their daily ration." 6 Moses and Aaron told the People of Israel, "This evening you will know that it is God who brought you out of Egypt; 7 and in the morning you will see the Glory of God. Yes, he's listened to your complaints against him. You haven't been complaining against us, you know, but against God." 8 Moses said, "Since it will be God who gives you meat for your meal in the evening and your fill of bread in the morning, it's God who will have listened to your complaints against him. Who are we in all this? You haven't been complaining to us - you've been complaining to God!" 9 Moses instructed Aaron: "Tell the whole company of Israel: 'Come near to God. He's heard your complaints.'" 10 When Aaron gave out the instructions to the whole company of Israel, they turned to face the wilderness. And there it was: the Glory of God visible in the Cloud. 11 God spoke to Moses, 12 "I've listened to the complaints of the Israelites. Now tell them: 'At dusk you will eat meat and at dawn you'll eat your fill of bread; and you'll realize that I am God, your God.'"
13 That evening quail flew in and covered the camp and in the morning there was a layer of dew all over the camp. 14 When the layer of dew had lifted, there on the wilderness ground was a fine flaky something, fine as frost on the ground. 15 The Israelites took one look and said to one another, man-hu (What is it?). They had no idea what it was. 16 And these are God's instructions: 'Gather enough for each person, about two quarts per person; gather enough for everyone in your tent.'" 17 The People of Israel went to work and started gathering, some more, some less, 18 but when they measured out what they had gathered, those who gathered more had no extra and those who gathered less weren't short - each person had gathered as much as was needed. 19 Moses said to them, "Don't leave any of it until morning." 20 But they didn't listen to Moses. A few of the men kept back some of it until morning. It got wormy and smelled bad. And Moses lost his temper with them. 21 They gathered it every morning, each person according to need. Then the sun heated up and it melted.
22 On the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, about four quarts per person. Then the leaders of the company came to Moses and reported. 23 Moses said, "This is what God was talking about: Tomorrow is a day of rest, a holy Sabbath to God. Whatever you plan to bake, bake today; and whatever you plan to boil, boil today. Then set aside the leftovers until morning." 24 They set aside what was left until morning, as Moses had commanded. It didn't smell bad and there were no worms in it. 25 Moses said, "Now eat it; this is the day, a Sabbath for God. You won't find any of it on the ground today. 26 Gather it every day for six days, but the seventh day is Sabbath; there won't be any of it on the ground." 27 On the seventh day, some of the people went out to gather anyway but they didn't find anything. 28 God said to Moses, "How long are you going to disobey my commands and not follow my instructions? 29 Don't you see that God has given you the Sabbath? So on the sixth day he gives you bread for two days. So, each of you, stay home. Don't leave home on the seventh day." 30 So the people quit working on the seventh day. 31 The Israelites named it manna (What is it?). It looked like coriander seed, whitish. And it tasted like a cracker with honey.
32 Moses said, "This is God's command: 'Keep a two-quart jar of it, an omer, for future generations so they can see the bread that I fed you in the wilderness after I brought you out of Egypt.'" 33 Moses told Aaron, "Take a jar and fill it with two quarts of manna. Place it before God, keeping it safe for future generations." 34 Aaron did what God commanded Moses. He set it aside before The Testimony to preserve it. 35 The Israelites ate the manna for forty years until they arrived at the land where they would settle down. They ate manna until they reached the border into Canaan. 36 According to ancient measurements, an omer is one-tenth of an ephah.
Water from the Rock
17 1 Directed by God, the whole company of Israel moved on by stages from the Wilderness of Sin. They set camp at Rephidim. And there wasn't a drop of water for the people to drink. 2 The people took Moses to task: "Give us water to drink." But Moses said, "Why pester me? Why are you testing God?" 3 But the people were thirsty for water there. They complained to Moses, "Why did you take us from Egypt and drag us out here with our children and animals to die of thirst?" 4 Moses cried out in prayer to God, "What can I do with these people? Any minute now they'll kill me!" 5 God said to Moses, "Go on out ahead of the people, taking with you some of the elders of Israel. Take the staff you used to strike the Nile. And go. 6 I'm going to be present before you there on the rock at Horeb. You are to strike the rock. Water will gush out of it and the people will drink." 7 He named the place Massah (Testing-Place) and Meribah (Quarreling) because of the quarreling of the Israelites and because of their testing of God when they said, "Is God here with us, or not?"
War with Amalek
8 Amalek came and fought Israel at Rephidim. 9 Moses ordered Joshua: "Select some men for us and go out and fight Amalek. Tomorrow I will take my stand on top of the hill holding God's staff." 10 Joshua did what Moses ordered in order to fight Amalek. And Moses, Aaron, and Hur went to the top of the hill. 11 It turned out that whenever Moses raised his hands, Israel was winning, but whenever he lowered his hands, Amalek was winning. 12 But Moses' hands got tired. So they got a stone and set it under him. He sat on it and Aaron and Hur held up his hands, one on each side. So his hands remained steady until the sun went down. 13 Joshua defeated Amalek and its army in battle. 14 God said to Moses, "Write this up as a reminder to Joshua, to keep it before him, because I will most certainly wipe the very memory of Amalek off the face of the Earth." 15 Moses built an altar and named it "God My Banner." 16 He said, Salute God's rule! God at war with Amalek Always and forever!
Jethro Visits Moses
18 1 Jethro, priest of Midian and father-in-law to Moses, heard the report of all that God had done for Moses and Israel his people, the news that God had delivered Israel from Egypt. 2 Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, had taken in Zipporah, Moses' wife who had been sent back home, 3 and her two sons. The name of the one was Gershom (Sojourner) for he had said, "I'm a sojourner in a foreign land"; 4 the name of the other was Eliezer (God's-Help) because "The God of my father is my help and saved me from death by Pharaoh." 5 Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, brought Moses his sons and his wife there in the wilderness where he was camped at the mountain of God. 6 He had sent a message ahead to Moses: "I, your father-in-law, am coming to you with your wife and two sons."
7 Moses went out to welcome his father-in-law. He bowed to him and kissed him. Each asked the other how things had been with him. Then they went into the tent. 8 Moses told his father-in-law the story of all that God had done to Pharaoh and Egypt in helping Israel, all the trouble they had experienced on the journey, and how God had delivered them. 9 Jethro was delighted in all the good that God had done for Israel in delivering them from Egyptian oppression. 10 Jethro said, "Blessed be God who has delivered you from the power of Egypt and Pharaoh, who has delivered his people from the oppression of Egypt. 11 Now I know that God is greater than all gods because he's done this to all those who treated Israel arrogantly." 12 Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, brought a Whole-Burnt-Offering and sacrifices to God. And Aaron, along with all the elders of Israel, came and ate the meal with Moses' father-in-law in the presence of God.
The Appointment of Judges
13 The next day Moses took his place to judge the people. People were standing before him all day long, from morning to night. 14 When Moses' father-in-law saw all that he was doing for the people, he said, "What's going on here? Why are you doing all this, and all by yourself, letting everybody line up before you from morning to night?" 15 Moses said to his father-in-law, "Because the people come to me with questions about God. 16 When something comes up, they come to me. I judge between a man and his neighbor and teach them God's laws and instructions." 17 Moses' father-in-law said, "This is no way to go about it. 18 You'll burn out, and the people right along with you. This is way too much for you - you can't do this alone. 19 Now listen to me. Let me tell you how to do this so that God will be in this with you. Be there for the people before God, but let the matters of concern be presented to God. 20 Your job is to teach them the rules and instructions, to show them how to live, what to do. 21 And then you need to keep a sharp eye out for competent men - men who fear God, men of integrity, men who are incorruptible - and appoint them as leaders over groups organized by the thousand, by the hundred, by fifty, and by ten. 22 They'll be responsible for the everyday work of judging among the people. They'll bring the hard cases to you, but in the routine cases they'll be the judges. They will share your load and that will make it easier for you. 23 If you handle the work this way, you'll have the strength to carry out whatever God commands you, and the people in their settings will flourish also." 24 Moses listened to the counsel of his father-in-law and did everything he said. 25 Moses picked competent men from all Israel and set them as leaders over the people who were organized by the thousand, by the hundred, by fifty, and by ten. 26 They took over the everyday work of judging among the people. They brought the hard cases to Moses, but in the routine cases they were the judges. 27 Then Moses said good-bye to his father-in-law who went home to his own country.