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How Did the Apostle Paul Die?

Even historians debate the exact date or manner in which Paul died, but it is almost universally accepted that he was martyred. Based on historical events of the day, it is likely that Paul was beheaded, possibly around the same time that Peter was crucified.
Editor, BibleStudyTools.com
Updated Sep 13, 2023
How Did the Apostle Paul Die?

The Apostle Paul’s writing and teaching to the early church through letters makes up the bulk of the New Testament. The Scripture gives us detailed information about his life, his conversion, and his ministry. But it says nothing about his death.

Even historians debate the exact date or manner in which Paul died, but it is almost universally accepted that he was martyred. Based on historical events of the day, it is likely that Paul was beheaded, possibly around the same time that Peter was crucified. Given the political turmoil of the day, both apostles could have been caught up in a wave of attacks on Christians following a great fire in Rome.

Rome under Emperor Nero 

Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ruled the Roman Empire from 54-68 AD. Encyclopedia Britannica and most historians agree that he was a brutal, irresponsible, and opulent ruler who was famous for persecuting Christians. He was known to force Christians into gladiator matches, where they would be eaten by lions, and “he often lit his garden parties with the burning carcasses of Christian human torches,” explains this article from PBS.

Perhaps one of the greatest mysteries surrounding Nero was the burning of Rome. On July 19, 64 AD, a fire began in the city that spread for 6 days, reignited and burned for 3 further days. “History has blamed Nero for the disaster, implying that he started the fire so that he could bypass the senate and rebuild Rome to his liking,” according to PBS. This has never been proven, but regardless of whether or not Nero was involved in burning the city, he took advantage of the disaster to do two things: build his own luxurious new architecture and persecute Christians.

Potential Cause of Paul the Apostle’s Death

In Romans 15:23-29, Paul writes of his plan to meet the body of believers in Rome while on his way to Spain. Encyclopedia Britannica lists Romans as Paul’s last chronological writing, so these chapters were likely some of the last he wrote before his death. As the book of Romans was written around 57 AD, it is entirely possible that Paul found himself in Rome in the midst of Nero’s persecution following the great fire.

Adam Clark writes in his commentary that “it is commonly believed that, when a general persecution was raised against the Christians by Nero … both St. Paul and St. Peter then sealed the truth with their blood.” Prior to his death, Paul spent plenty of time in prison and on the run, so he was likely already known to many Roman officials.

Because Paul was a Roman citizen, unlike Peter, he was protected from the brutal death of crucifixion. Therefore, it is likely that he was executed by beheading.

Further, there is no definitive proof of what happened to Paul’s body. Albert Barnes writes that it is believed either a noblewoman named Lucina buried him on her land, beside the Ostian Road, or the body was taken to the catacombs below the city. However, “probably no reliance is to be placed on either of these statements.” Today, a church, St. Paul’s Outside-the-Walls, stands at the spot where many believe Paul was killed.

Facts about Paul the Apostle’s Life and Death

Uncovering details in ancient history is difficult, but there are some things we can definitively say about Paul’s life and death.

1. One seemingly obvious fact is that Paul did die, unlike the prophet Elijah or patriarch Enoch, who were brought up to heaven.

2. We can also safely assume that no matter what kind of death Paul faced, he was prepared to meet his fate. He wrote in Philippians 1:21-24:

“For to me, to live is Christ and to die is gain. If I am to go on living in the body, this will mean fruitful labor for me. Yet what shall I choose? I do not know! I am torn between the two: I desire to depart and be with Christ, which is better by far; but it is more necessary for you that I remain in the body.”

Paul’s death could have been unrelated to Nero’s attack after the great fire. But no matter how he met his death, Paul’s life laid a crucial foundation for the Christian faith.  

Save these 15 Bible Verses Every Christian Should Know to your phone and share with your loved ones!

Bethany Pyle is the editor for BibleStudyTools.com and the design editor for Salem Web Network

What Motivated Paul to Surrender to Christ?

By Charles Stanley

Saul of Tarsus underwent a radical transformation—the zealous persecutor of Christians became a passionate follower of Christ. Later known as Paul, he dedicated his time, energy, and talent to spreading the gospel message. What motivated him to surrender his life wholeheartedly to Jesus?

Jesus’ sacrifice of love. Before salvation, Paul had opposed all who believed in Jesus as the Messiah. At his conversion, this persecutor of Christians realized that Christ willingly died on the cross because of His love for mankind. Jesus left His heavenly home, suffered, and died so we might be reconciled to God. The Lord’s sacrifice on the cross motivated the apostle to tell others about His all-encompassing love (Ephesians 3:18).

Gratitude for salvation. On the road to Damascus, Christ’s enemy became a member of His family. Paul called himself the worst of sinners, acknowledging that he was unworthy of salvation and undeserving of mercy or favor (1 Timothy 1:15–16). It was gratitude for salvation that fueled his devotion and dedication to the cause of Christ.

Power of the gospel to transform lives. The apostle’s own experience made him long to see others rescued from slavery to sin so they might experience God’s grace. He wanted many to benefit from the saving and transforming power of the gospel.

We’ve been entrusted with the responsibility of spreading the gospel. When inadequacy, doubt, or complacency keeps us silent, let’s remember what motivated Paul. Then imagine a day when loved ones will experience the peace of God, the love of Christ, and the indwelling presence of the Holy Spirit.

Taken from “Spreading the Good News” by In Touch Ministries (used by permission).

What Can We Learn from the Life of Paul?

By Charles Stanley

The apostle Paul had a certain mind-set that Christians are wise to emulate (1 Corinthians 11:1). His attitude included:

1. Humility. Pride cannot hide in the heart of a believer who understands divine mercy. Paul spread the gospel because he believed that the grace which was sufficient to save a sinner like him was adequate for anyone.

2. A sense of obligation. The apostle never lost sight of how far God's grace had brought him. He frequently reminded followers of his role in persecuting the church (1 Timothy 1:13). Paul's gratitude for salvation from that former life never waned. The book of Acts records the almost constant turmoil and heartache of his travels, and yet he kept praising the Lord for the privilege of serving.

3. A sense of dependence. To describe the source of his strength, Paul used these words: "By the grace of God I am what I am" (1 Corinthians 15:10). He knew what it was like to depend upon one's own goodness and work to be religious - and he wanted no part of it. Paul desired more of Jesus and none of himself (Philippians 3:8).

4. A spirit of absolute confidence. At the end of his life, Paul was as certain as ever that God was real, in charge, and worthy of all honor, glory, and praise (2 Timothy 4:6-8).

Do you see these attitudes in yourself? If not, borrow a page from the apostle Paul's "playbook." Praise the Lord for all that He has done for you, and then get busy working for His kingdom. Do not allow His grace to be poured out on your life in vain (1 Corinthians 15:10).

Taken from "The Attitude of a Saint" by In Touch Ministries (used by permission).

Photo Credit: Rembrandt painting of Paul the Apostle/Wikimedia Commons

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