Who Was Hannah in the Bible?

Hannah gave her firstborn son’s life to God in love and honor. And we see her actions foreshadow God’s. Because of God the Father’s love for us, he gave his first and only son’s life to restore our honor.

Danielle Bernock
Mother silhouetted with her son

There are many prominent women in the Bible. Ruth and Esther have entire books to tell their story. However, the woman we know as Hannah in the Bible is found only in 1 Samuel, yet her story is anything but insignificant.

Hannah’s story deals with infertility, bullying, answered prayer and reaches prophetically into the New Testament.

Loved but Barren and Bullied

In the Old Testament, it was common for men to have more than one wife. Hannah was one of two women married to a man named Elkanah. It isn’t clear in the scriptures which wife he married first, but Hannah had no children, while his other wife, Peninnah, had many.

Having children was an important part of the culture then, yet Hannah’s infertility didn’t matter to Elkanah. The Bible makes it clear how deeply he loved her, and the pain she endured from the other wife.

Year after year this man went up from his town to worship and sacrifice to the Lord Almighty at Shiloh, where Hophni and Phinehas, the two sons of Eli, were priests of the Lord. Whenever the day came for Elkanah to sacrifice, he would give portions of the meat to his wife Peninnah and to all her sons and daughters. But to Hannah he gave a double portion because he loved her, and the Lord had closed her womb. Because the Lord had closed Hannah’s womb, her rival kept provoking her in order to irritate her. This went on year after year. Whenever Hannah went up to the house of the Lord, her rival provoked her till she wept and would not eat. Her husband Elkanah would say to her, “Hannah, why are you weeping? Why don’t you eat? Why are you downhearted? Don’t I mean more to you than ten sons?” (1 Samuel 1:3-8).

Hannah’s pain is deep, yet her honor for God is deeper.

Hannah’s Response

Hannah isn’t the first woman in the Bible to suffer infertility. First, there was Sarah the wife of Abraham, then Rebekah the wife of Isaac, and Rachel the wife of Jacob.

Yet Hannah’s response was profoundly different than theirs. In her pain, Hannah didn’t retaliate to Peninnah or Elkanah. She took her pain to the only one who could alleviate it — the Lord her God.

In her deep anguish Hannah prayed to the Lord, weeping bitterly. And she made a vow, saying, “Lord Almighty, if you will only look on your servant’s misery and remember me, and not forget your servant but give her a son, then I will give him to the Lord for all the days of his life, and no razor will ever be used on his head” (1 Samuel 1:10-11).

Yet even in her sincere petition Hannah is met with more negativity. The priest in the temple accuses her of being drunk and says to her, “How long are you going to stay drunk? Put away your wine.”

Once again, Hannah doesn’t get defensive but responds to Eli honorably. She is met with words of hope.

“Not so, my lord,” Hannah replied, “I am a woman who is deeply troubled. I have not been drinking wine or beer; I was pouring out my soul to the Lord. Do not take your servant for a wicked woman; I have been praying here out of my great anguish and grief.” Eli answered, “Go in peace, and may the God of Israel grant you what you have asked of him” (1 Samuel 1:15-17).

Hannah took Eli’s words and mixed them with faith evidenced by her change in countenance —“her face was no longer downcast.”

Answered Prayer

After returning home from this visit to Shiloh, her prayer is answered the very next day.

Early the next morning they arose and worshiped before the Lord and then went back to their home at Ramah. Elkanah made love to his wife Hannah, and the Lord remembered her. So in the course of time Hannah became pregnant and gave birth to a son. She named him Samuel, saying, “Because I asked the Lord for him” (1 Samuel 1:19-20)

Giving birth to Samuel is just part of Hannah’s amazing story. Remember the vow she made before the Lord in her initial appeal. Hannah had every intention of keeping it. From the time her son was born, until he was weaned, Hannah loved Samuel, preparing her heart for the big day.

After he was weaned, she took the boy with her, young as he was, along with a three-year-old bull, an ephah of flour and a skin of wine, and brought him to the house of the Lord at Shiloh. When the bull had been sacrificed, they brought the boy to Eli, and she said to him, “Pardon me, my lord. As surely as you live, I am the woman who stood here beside you praying to the Lord. I prayed for this child, and the Lord has granted me what I asked of him. So now I give him to the Lord. For his whole life he will be given over to the Lord.” And he worshiped the Lord there (1 Samuel 1:24-28).

Being fulfilled as a mother and fulfilling her vow to God brought Hannah much joy.

Prophetic Joy

There are three, no four, prophetic things to notice in Hannah’s story.

1. After Hannah fulfilled her vow delivering Samuel to the temple, she worshipped and sang prophetically. The resemblance between her song in 1 Samuel 2:1-10, and the song Mary the mother of Jesus in Luke 1:46-55 sang, is profound.

2. Every year Eli prophesied over her and she had five more children after Samuel.

Before they returned home, Eli would bless Elkanah and his wife and say, “May the Lord give you other children to take the place of this one she gave to the Lord”…She had three more sons and two daughters while Samuel “grew up in the presence of the Lord” (1 Samuel 2:20, 21b, NLT).

3. Hannah gave her firstborn son’s life to God in love and honor. And we see her actions foreshadow God’s. Because of God the Father’s love for us, he gave his first and only son’s life to restore our honor.

4. Hannah’s very name. Hannah means favor or grace. It’s through our Lord Jesus Christ that we have been given favor with God and access to his grace that is able to save our souls.

Hannah’s story takes us from pain to joy, as does God’s plan of salvation.

Photo Credit: ©iStock/Getty Images Plus/kieferpix


Danielle Bernock is an international, award-winning author, speaker, and coach who helps people embrace their value and heal their soul through the power of the love of God. She’s written Emerging With Wings, A Bird Named Payn (now available in audio), Love’s Manifesto and Because You Matter. A long time follower of Christ, Danielle lives with her husband in Michigan near her adult children and grandchildren. For more information or to connect with Danielle https://www.daniellebernock.com/ 


Originally published September 08, 2020.