Disciple-Making and Sentence Diagramming, Part 4

Tim Brister
Tim Brister

So far, we have set up the diagramming template (part 2) and marked propositions along with coordinate and subordinate clauses. In this post, I simply want to explain the relationship between the clauses with regard to the propositions. Again, we are not diagramming grammar (words); rather, we are diagramming concepts/idea (propositions), so the key is not so much how words relate to one another as how propositions relate to one another.

Let me say from the outset that beginners in sentence diagramming may find this step of labeling propositions over their head. Let me encourage you to not give up or bypass this step entirely. You may need to work yourself into learning these labels and how to classify clauses, and no one becomes experienced in doing this overnight. So as a word of caution and exhortation, let me say I recognize this may be a sticking point for some. My hope is that you would press on and benefit from the massaging these labels in your thinking because, over time, they will become natural in your thinking whether you are diagramming a text or simply reading it devotionally.

There are basically ten different types of propositions. I first learned of these propositions from Dr. Jonathan Pennington while in seminary, who also employed Richard Young’s Intermediate New Testament Greek book. Here are the ten labels/classifications for clauses/propositions.

10 Classifications for Clauses/Propositions

1. Temporal – Describes the time or occasion when the proposition will occur. A temporal clause answers the question “when?” || Key Words: when, while

2. Manner/Means – Describes the means or the manner in which the proposition is carried out. || Key Words: by, through

3. Grounds – Describes the cause, reason, or grounds for the proposition or action.|| Key Words: because, since, for

4. Inference –  Describes the logical conclusion or result that comes from a previous proposition. || Key Words: therefore, thus, consequently

5. Purpose – Describes the purpose for a proposition or action. They answer the question “why?” || Key Words: to, in order that, so that

6. Result – Describes result/outcome of the proposition. || Key Words: so that, with the result that

7. Condition & Corollary – This is a paired set of labels that should be used together. Together a pair of condition-corollary phrases describes a potential condition for the proposition or action to occur. These will very often appear in the form of an “if . . . then” clause, though not always. || Key Words: “If…then”

8. Concessive – Describes a circumstance in spite of the proposition or action. || Key Words: though, although, yet, but

9. Content – A content clause gives another proposition that describes or qualifies a preceding one. || Key Words: that, lest

10. Description/Explanation – A classification for clauses not easily definable with other categories but modifies a proposition with additional information (either by describing or explaining the proposition).

Now let’s go back to 1 John 1 again. In the first image, I showed the text simply copy, pasted, and formatted in a word document. The section image shows how I broke down the text in propositions, Now in the image below, I show the relationship between the propositions with the above classifications. Note: P=proposition | C=coordinate clause | S=subordinate clause.

In this passage, there’s a lot of similarity between propositions. In other words, there’s a rhythm of sorts in the thought flow of the text. As I mentioned in my original post, the goal is to make disciples greater “seers” of God’s Word. The better you “observe” the text, the better you should be able to interpret the meaning of the text. Ultimately, faithfulness in understanding God’s Word becomes fertile ground for life transformation and provides multiple action points for applying truth to others based on what has been revealed in Scripture.

The next step I take in sentence diagramming is marking up the document in order to illuminate observations. Once those observations are visibly marked, I conclude my observations by summarizing what I have seen from the text and move to interpretation (determining the meaning of the text). This step will come in my next post.

Originally published May 05, 2015.

Read more Christian blogs at  You can read blogs about church history, Bible characters, theology,  apologetics, and much more.  Discover study tips on learning the Bible.  Learn new truths about all 66 books of the Bible.

Editors' Picks

  • The Connection between Halloween & Reformation Day
    The Connection between Halloween & Reformation Day
  • "The Bible Has So Many Contradictions!"
    "The Bible Has So Many Contradictions!"
  • 3 Ways to See God in Your Suffering
    3 Ways to See God in Your Suffering