We are bound to thank God always for you, brethren, as it is meet, because that your faith groweth exceedingly, and the charity of every one of you all toward each other aboundeth;
It is highly observable, that the apostle wraps up his praise of men in praise to God; giving him the glory.
Your faith groweth — Probably he had heard from them since his sending the former letter.
Aboundeth — Like water that overflows its banks, and yet increaseth still.
 So that we ourselves glory in you in the churches of God for your patience and faith in all your persecutions and tribulations that ye endure:
Which ye endure — "That ye may be accounted worthy of the kingdom."
 Which is a manifest token of the righteous judgment of God, that ye may be counted worthy of the kingdom of God, for which ye also suffer:
A manifest token — This is treated of in the sixth 2 Thessalonians 1:6 and following verses.
 Seeing it is a righteous thing with God to recompense tribulation to them that trouble you;
It is a righteous thing with God — (However men may judge) to transfer the pressure from you to them. And it is remarkable that about this time, at the passover, the Jews raising a tumult, a great number (some say thirty thousand) of them were slain. St. Paul seems to allude to this beginning of sorrows, 1 Thessalonians 2:16, which did not end but with their destruction.
 In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ:
Taking vengeance — Does God barely permit this, or (as "the Lord" once "rained brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven," Genesis 19:24) does a fiery stream go forth from him for ever? Who know not God - (The root of all wickedness and misery) who remain in heathen ignorance.
And who obey not — This refers chiefly to the Jews, who had heard the gospel.
 Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power;
From the glory of his power — Tremble, ye stout-hearted.
Everlasting destruction — As there can be no end of their sins, (the same enmity against God continuing,) so neither of their punishment; sin and its punishment running parallel throughout eternity itself. They must of necessity, therefore, be cut off from all good, and all possibility of it.
From the presence of the Lord — Wherein chiefly consists the salvation of the righteous. What unspeakable punishment is implied even in falling short of this, supposing that nothing more were implied in his taking vengeance!
 When he shall come to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all them that believe (because our testimony among you was believed) in that day.
To be glorified in his saints — For the wonderful glory of Christ shall shine in them.
 Wherefore also we pray always for you, that our God would count you worthy of this calling, and fulfil all the good pleasure of his goodness, and the work of faith with power:
All the good pleasure of his goodness — Which is no less than perfect holiness.
 That the name of our Lord Jesus Christ may be glorified in you, and ye in him, according to the grace of our God and the Lord Jesus Christ.
That the name — The love and power of our Lord may be glorified - Gloriously displayed in you.