Exposition - Explanatory Notes and Quaint Sayings
Hints to the Village Preacher
TITLE. To the Chief Musician, a Psalm or Song of
David. We have already said enough upon this title when dealing with Psalms
65 and 66. The present is obviously a song to be sung at the removal of the ark;
and in all probability was rehearsed when David conducted it with holy joy from
the house of Obededom to the prepared place on Mount Zion. It is a most soul
stirring hymn. The first verses were often the battle song of the Covenanters
and Ironsides; and the whole Psalm fitly pictures the way of the Lord Jesus
among his saints, and his ascent to glory. The Psalm is at once surpassingly
excellent and difficult. Its darkness in some stanzas is utterly impenetrable.
Well does a German critic speak of it as a Titan very hard to master. Our
slender scholarship has utterly failed us and we have had to follow a surer
Guide. We trust our thoughts may not however prove unprofitable.
DIVISION. With the words of the first two verses the ark is
uplifted, and the procession begins to move. In Ps 68:3-6, the godly in the
assembly are exhorted to commence their joyous songs, and arguments are adduced
to help their joy. Then the glorious march of Jehovah in the wilderness is sung:
Ps 68:7-10, and his victories in war are celebrated in verses Ps 68:11-14. The
joyous shouts are louder as Zion comes in sight, and the ark is borne up the
hill: Ps 68:15-19. On the summit of the mount the priests sing a hymn concerning
the Lord's goodness and justice; the safety of his friends, and ruin of his
foes: Ps 68:20-23. Meanwhile the procession is described as it winds up the
hill: Ps 68:24-27. The poet anticipates a time of wider conquest, Ps 68:28-31:
and concludes with a noble burst of song unto Jehovah.
Verse 1. Let God arise. In some such words Moses spake when
the cloud moved onward, and the ark was carried forward. The ark would have been
a poor leader if the Lord had not been present with the symbol. Before we move,
we should always desire to see the Lord lead the way. The words suppose the Lord
to have been passive for awhile, suffering his enemies to rage, but restraining
his power. Israel beseeches him to "arise, "as elsewhere to "awake, ""gird on
his sword, "and other similar expressions. We, also, may thus importunately cry
unto the Lord, that he would be pleased to make bare his arm, and plead his own
cause. Let his enemies be scattered. Our glorious Captain of the
vanguard clears the way readily, however many may seek to obstruct it; he has
but to arise, and they flee, he has easily over thrown his foes in days of yore,
and will do so all through the ages to come. Sin, death, and hell know the
terror of his arm; their ranks are broken at his approach. Our enemies are
his enemies, and in this is our confidence of victory. Let them also that hate him flee before him. To hate the
infinitely good God is infamous, and the worst punishment is not too severe.
Hatred of God is impotent. His proudest foes can do him no injury. Alarmed
beyond measure, they shall flee before it comes to blows. Long before the army
of Israel can come into the fray, the haters of God shall flee before HIM who is
the champion of his chosen. He comes, he sees, he conquers. How fitting a prayer
is this for the commencement of a revival! How it suggests the true mode of
conducting one: --the Lord leads the way, his people follow, the enemies flee.
In order that our readers may see the Psalm at a glance in a
good translation, we subjoin the version of FRANZ DELITZSCH; recommending our
ministerial brethren to procure the volumes of his valuable Commentary on the
Psalms, issued by the Messrs. CLARK, of Edinburgh.
HYMN OF WAR AND VICTORY IN THE STYLE OF DEBORAH
2 LET Elohim arise, let His enemies be scattered,
And let those who hate Him flee before His face.
3 As smoke is driven away, do Thou drive them away;
As wax melteth before the fire,
Let the wicked perish before Elohim.
4 And let the righteous rejoice, let them exult before Elohim,
And let them be glad with joy.
5 Sing unto Elohim, harp His name,
Pave a highway for Him who rideth along through the steppes;
Jah is his name, and exult ye before Him.
6 A Father of the fatherless and an Advocate of the widows
Is Elohim in His holy habitation.
7 Elohim maketh a household for the solitary,
He leadeth forth prisoners into prosperity;
Yet the rebellious abide in a land of drought.
8 Elohim, when Thou wentest forth before Thy people,
When thou didst march along in the wilderness--Sela.
9 The earth shook,
The heavens also dropped before Elohim,
Yon Sinai before Elohim, the God of Israel.
10 With plentiful rain didst Thou, Elohim, water Thine inheritance,
And when it was parched, THOU hast confirmed it.
11 Thy creatures have settled down therein,
Thou didst provide with Thy goodness for the poor, Elohim.
12 The Lord will sound forth the mandate;
Of the women who herald victory there is a great army.
13 The kings of hosts shall flee, shall flee,
And she that tarrieth at home, shall divide the spoil.
14 If ye encamp among the sheep folds,
The dove's wings are covered with silver
And her feathers with glistening gold.
15 When the Almighty scattereth kings therein,
It becometh snow white upon Zalmon.
16 A mountain of Elohim is the mountain of Bashan,
A mountain full of peaks is the mountain of Bashan.
17 Why look ye enviously, ye many peaked mountains,
Upon the mountain which Elohim hath chosen, to dwell thereon?
Yea, Jahve will dwell (there) for ever.
18 The war chariots of Elohim are myriads, a thousand thousands,
The Lord is among them, it is a Sinai in holiness.
19 Thou hast ascended up to the height, Thou hast led captives captive,
Thou hast received gifts among men,
Even from the rebellious, that Jah Elohim might dwell (there).
20 Blessed be the Lord:
Day by day doth He bear our burden,
He, God, is our salvation. (Sela.)
21 He, God, is to us a God for deeds of deliverance,
And Jahve the Lord hath ways of escape for death.
22 Yea, Elohim will smite the head of His enemie,
The hairy scalp of him who stalks along in his trespasses.
23 The Lord hath said: Out of Bashan will I bring back,
I will bring back out of the depths of the sea,
24 That thou mayest bathe thy foot in blood,
That the tongue of thy dogs may have its share of the enemy.
25 They behold Thy splendid procession, Elohim,
The splendid procession of my God, my King in holiness.
26 Before went the singers, behind the players on stringed instruments,
In the midst of damsels striking timbrels.
27 In the choirs of the congregation bless ye Elohim,
The Lord, ye who are out of the fountain of Israel.
28 There is Benjamin the youngest, their ruler;
The princes of Judah--their motley band,
The princes of Zebulun, the princes of Naphtali,
29 Thy God hath commanded thy supreme power--
Uphold in power, Elohim, what Thou hast wrought for us!--
30 From Thy temple above Jerusalem
Let kings present offerings unto Thee.
31 Threaten the wild beast of the reed, the troops of bulls with the calves of the people,
That they may prostrate themselves with ingots of silver! --
He hath scattered the peoples that delight in wars.
32 Magnates come out of Egypt,
Cush--quickly do his hands stretch out unto Elohim.
33 Ye kingdoms of the earth, sing unto Elohim,
Praising the Lord with stringed instruments--(Sela.)
34 To Him who rideth in the heaven of heavens of the primeval time--
Lo, He made Himself heard with His voice, a mighty voice.
35 Ascribe ye might unto Elohim!
Over Israel is His majesty.
And His omnipotence in the heights of the heavens.
36 Terrible is Elohim out of thy sanctuaries;
"The God of Israel giveth might and abundant strength to the people!"
Blessed be Elohim!
Verse 2. As smoke is driven away. Easily the wind chases the
smoke, completely it removes it, no trace is left; so, Lord, do thou to the foes
of thy people. They fume in pride, they darken the sky with their malice, they
mount higher and higher in arrogance, they defile wherever they prevail. Lord,
let they breath, thy Spirit, thy Providence, make them to vanish for ever from
the march of thy people. Philosophic scepticism is as flimsy and as foul as
smoke; may the Lord deliver his Church from the reek of it. As wax melteth before the fire, so let the wicked perish at
the presence of God. Wax is hard when by itself, but put it to the
fire, how soft it is. Wicked men are haughty till they come into contact with
the Lord, and then they faint for fear; their hearts melt like wax when they
feel the power of his anger. Wax, also, burns and passes away; the taper is
utterly consumed by the flame: so shall all the boastful power of the opposers
of the gospel be as a thing of nought. Rome, like the candles on her altars,
shall dissolve, and with equal certainty shall infidelity disappear. Israel saw,
in the ark, God on the mercyseat--power in connection with propitiation --and
they rejoiced in the omnipotence of such a manifestation; this is even more
clearly the confidence of the New Testament church, for we see Jesus, the
appointed atonement, clothed with glory and majesty, and before his advance all
opposition melts like snow in the sun; the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in
his hands. When he comes by his Holy Spirit, conquest is the result; but when he
arises in person, his foes shall utterly perish.
Verse 3. But let the righteous be glad. The presence of God
on the throne of grace is an overflowing source of delight to the godly; and let
them not fail to drink of the streams which are meant to make them glad. Let them rejoice before God. The courtiers of the happy God
should wear the garments of gladness, for in his presence is fulness of joy.
That presence, which is the dread and death of the wicked, is the desire and
delight of the saints. Yea, let them exceedingly rejoice. Let them dance with all
their might, as David did, for very joy. No bounds should be set to joy in the
Lord. "Again, I say, rejoice, "says the apostle, as if he would have us add joy
to joy without measure or pause. When God is seen to shine propitious from above
the mercyseat in the person of our Immanuel, our hearts must needs leap within
us with exultation, if we are indeed among those made righteous in his
righteousness, and sanctified by his Spirit. Move on, O army of the living God,
with shouts of abounding triumph, for Jesus leads the van.
Verse 4. Sing unto God, sing praises to his name. To time
and tune, with order and care, celebrate the character and deeds of God, the God
of his people. Do it again and again; and let the praise, with resolution of
heart, be all directed to him. Sing not for ostentation, but devotion; not to be
heard of men, but of the Lord himself. Sing not to the congregation, but "unto
God," Extol him that rideth upon the heavens by his name JAH.
Remember his most great, incomprehensible, and awful name; reflect upon his self
existence and absolute dominion, rise to the highest pitch of joyful reverence
in adoring him. Heaven beholds him riding on the clouds in storm, and earth has
seen him marching over its plains with majesty. The Hebrew seems to be: "Cast up
a highway for him who marches through the wilderness, "in allusion to the
wanderings of the tribes in the desert. The marches of God were in the waste
howling wilderness. His eternal power and Godhead were there displayed in his
feeding, ruling, and protecting the vast hosts which he had brought out of
Egypt. The ark brought all this to remembrance, and suggested it as a theme for
song. The name JAH is an abbreviation of the name Jehovah; it is not a
diminution of that name, but an intensified word, containing in it the essence
of the longer, august title. It only occurs here in our version of Scripture,
except in connection with other words such as Hallelujah. And rejoice before him. In the presence of him who marched
so gloriously at the head of the elect nation, it is most fitting that all his
people should display a holy delight. We ought to avoid dulness in our worship.
Our songs should be weighty with solemnity, but not heavy with sadness. Angels
are nearer the throne than we, but their deepest awe is consonant with the
purest bliss; our sense of divine greatness must not minister terror but
gladness to our souls; we should rejoice before him. It should be our
wish and prayer, that in this wilderness world, a highway may be prepared for
the God of grace. "Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight in the desert a
highway for our God, "is the cry of gospel heralds, and we must all zealously
aim at obedience thereto; for where the God of the mercyseat comes, blessings
innumerable are given to the sons of men.
Verse 5. A father of the fatherless, and a judge of the widows,
is God in his holy habitation. In the wilderness the people were like
an orphan nation, but God was more than a father to them. As the generation
which came out of Egypt gradually died away, there were many widows and
fatherless ones in the camp, but they suffered no want or wrong, for the
righteous laws and the just administrators whom God had appointed, looked well
to the interests of the needy. The tabernacle was the Palace of Justice; the ark
was the seat of the great King. This was a great cause for joy to Israel, that
they were ruled by the ONE who would not suffer the poor and needy to be
oppressed. To this day and for ever, God is, and will be, the peculiar guardian
of the defenceless. He is the President of Orphanages, the Protector of Widows.
He is so glorious that he rides on the heavens, but so compassionate that he
remembers the poor of the earth. How zealously ought his church to cherish those
who are here marked out as Jehovah's especial charge. Does he not here in effect
say, "Feed my lambs"? Blessed duty, it shall be our privilege to make this one
of our life's dearest objects. The reader is warned against misquoting this
verse; it is generally altered into "the husband of the widow, "but
Scripture had better be left as God gave it.
Verse 6. God setteth the solitary in families. The people
had been sundered and scattered over Egypt; family ties had been disregarded,
and affections crushed; but when the people escaped from Pharaoh they came
together again, and all the fond associations of household life were restored.
This was a great joy. He bringeth out those which are bound with chains. The most
oppressed in Egypt were chained and imprisoned, but the divine Emancipator
brought them all forth into perfect liberty. He who did this of old continues
his gracious work. The solitary heart, convinced of sin and made to pine alone,
is admitted into the family of the Firstborn; the fettered spirit is set free,
and its prison broken down, when sin is forgiven; and for all this, God is to be
greatly extolled, for he hath done it, and magnified the glory of his grace. But the rebellious dwell in a dry land. If any find the
rule of Jehovah to be irksome, it is because their rebellious spirits kick
against his power. Israel did not find the desert dry, for the smitten rock gave
forth its streams; but even in Canaan itself men were consumed with famine,
because they cast off their allegiance to their covenant God. Even where God is
revealed on the mercyseat, some men persist in rebellion, and such need not
wonder if they find no peace, no comfort, no joy, even where all these abound.
Justice is the rule of the Lord's kingdom, and hence there is no provision for
the unjust to indulge their evil lustings: a perfect earth, and even heaven
itself, would be a dry land to those who can only drink of the waters of sin. Of
the most soul satisfying of sacred ordinances these witless rebels cry, "what a
weariness it is!" and, under the most soul sustaining ministry, they complain of
"the foolishness of preaching." When a man has a rebellious heart, he must of
necessity find all around him a dry land.
Verse 7. O God, when thou wentest forth before thy people.
What a sweetly suitable association, "thou" and "thy people; "--thou before, and
thy people following! The Lord went before, and, therefore, whether the Red Sea
or burning sand lay in the way, it mattered not; the pillar of cloud and fire
always led them by a right way. When thou didst march through the wilderness. He was the
Commander in chief of Israel, from whom they received all orders, and the march
was therefore his march. "His stately step the region drear beheld." We
may speak, if we will, of the "wanderings of the children of Israel, "but we
must not think them purposeless strayings, they were in reality a well arranged
and well considered march. SELAH. This seems an odd place for a musical pause or
direction, but it is better to break a sentence than spoil praise. The sense is
about to be superlatively grand, and, therefore, the selah intimates the
fact to the players and singers, that they may with suitable solemnity perform
their parts. It is never untimely to remind a congregation that the worship of
God should be thoughtfully and heartily presented.
Verse 8. The earth shook. Beneath the sublime tread the
solid ground trembled. The heavens also dropped at the presence of God, as if they
bowed before their God, the clouds descended, and "a few dark shower drops stole
abroad." Even Sinai itself was moved at the presence of God. Moses
tell us, in Exodus 19, that "the whole mountain quaked greatly." That hill, so
lone and high, bowed before the manifested God. The God of Israel. The one only living and true God, whom
Israel worshipped, and who had chosen that nation to be his own above all the
nations of the earth. The passage is so sublime, that it would be difficult to
find its equal. May the reader's heart adore the God before whom the unconscious
earth and sky act as if they recognised their Maker and were moved with a tremor
Verse 9. Thou, O God, didst send a plentiful rain. The march
of God was not signalized solely by displays of terror, for goodness and bounty
were also made conspicuous. Such rain as never fell before dropped on the desert
sand, bread from heaven and winged fowl fell all around the host; good gifts
were poured upon them, rivers leaped forth from rocks. The earth shook with
fear, and in reply, the Lord, as from a cornucopia, shook out blessings upon it;
so the original may be rendered. Whereby thou didst confirm thine inheritance, when it was
weary. As at the end of each stage, when they halted, weary with the march,
they found such showers of good things awaiting them that they were speedily
refreshed. Their foot did not swell all those forty years. When they were
exhausted, God was not. When they were weary, He was not. They were his chosen
heritage, and, therefore, although for their good he allowed them to be weary,
yet he watchfully tended them and tenderly considered their distresses. In like
manner, to this day, the elect of God in this wilderness state are apt to become
tired and faint, but their ever loving Jehovah comes in with timely succours,
cheers the faint, strengthens the weak, and refreshes the hungry; so that once
again, when the silver trumpets sound, the church militant advances with bold
and firm step towards "the rest which remaineth." By this faithfulness, the
faith of God's people is confirmed, and their hearts established; if fatigue and
want made them waver, the timely supply of grace stays them again upon the
Verse 10. Thy congregation hath dwelt therein. In the
wilderness itself, enclosed as in a wall of fire, thy chosen church has found a
home; or, rather, girdled by the shower of free grace which fell all around the
camp, thy flock has rested. The congregation of the faithful find the Lord to be
their "dwelling place in all generations." Where there were no dwellings of men,
God was the dwelling of his people. Thou, O God, hast prepared of thy goodness for the poor.
Within the guarded circle there was plenty for all; all were poor in themselves,
yet there were no beggars in all the camp, for celestial fare was to be had for
the gathering. We, too, still dwell within the circling protection of the Most
High, and find goodness made ready for us: although poor and needy by nature, we
are enriched by grace; divine preparations in the decree, the covenant, the
atonement, providence, and the Spirit's work, have made ready for us a fulness
of the blessing of the Lord. Happy people, though in the wilderness, for all
things are ours, in possessing the favour and presence of our God.
Verse 11. In the next verse we do not sing of marching, but
of battle and victory. The Lord gave the word. The enemy was near, and the silver
trumpet from the tabernacle door was God's mouth to warn the camp: then was
there hurrying to and fro, and a general telling of the news; great was the company of those that published it. The women
ran from tent to tent and roused their lords to battle. Ready as they always
were to chant the victory, they were equally swift to publish the fact that the
battle note had been sounded. The ten thousand maids of Israel, like good
handmaids of the Lord, aroused the sleepers, called in the wanderers, and bade
the valiant men to hasten to the fray. O for the like zeal in the church of
today, that, when the gospel is published, both men and women may eagerly spread
the glad tidings of great joy.
Verse 12. Kings of armies did flee apace. The lords of hosts
fled before the Lord of Hosts. No sooner did the ark advance than the enemy
turned his back: even the princely leaders stayed not, but took to flight. The
rout was complete, the retreat hurried and disorderly; --they "did flee, did
flee; "helter skelter, pell mell, as we say.
"Where are the kings of mighty hosts?
Fled far away, fled far and wide.
Their triumph and their trophied boasts
The damsels in their bowers divide."
And she that tarried at home divided the spoil. The women
who had published the war cry shared the booty. The feeblest in Israel had a
portion of the prey. Gallant warriors cast their spoils at the feet of the women
and bade them array themselves in splendour, taking each one "a prey of divers
colours, of divers colours of needlework on both sides." When the Lord gives
success to his gospel, the very best of his saints are made glad and feel
themselves partakers in the blessing.
Verse 13. Though ye have lien among the pots. Does he mean
that the women at home, who had been meanly clad as they performed their
household work, would be so gorgeously arrayed in the spoil, that they would be
like doves of silver wing and golden plumage? Or, would he say that Israel,
which had been begrimed in the brick kilns of Egypt, should come forth lustrous
and happy in triumph and liberty? Or, did the song signify that the ark should
be brought from its poor abode with Obededom into a fairer dwelling place? It is
a hard passage, a nut for the learned to crack. If we knew all that was known
when this ancient hymn was composed, the allusion would no doubt strike us as
being beautifully appropriate, but as we do not, we will let it rest among the
unriddled things. Alexander reads it, "When ye shall lie down between the
borders, ye shall be like the wings, "etc., which he considers to mean, "when
settled in peace, the land shall enjoy prosperity; "but this version does not
seem to us any more clear than our authorized one. Of making many conjectures
there is no end; but the sense seems to be, that from the lowest condition the
Lord would lift up his people into joy, liberty, wealth, and beauty. Their
enemies may have called them squatters among the pots--in allusion to their
Egyptian slavery; they may have jested at them as scullions of Pharaoh's
kitchen; but the Lord would avenge them and give them beauty for blackness,
glory for grime. Yet shall ye be as the wings of a dove covered with silver, and
her feathers with yellow gold. The dove's wing flashed light like
silver, and anon gleams with the radiance of "the pale, pure gold." The lovely,
changeable colours of the dove might well image the mild, lustrous beauty of the
nation, when arrayed in white holiday attire, bedecked with their gems, jewels,
and ornaments of gold. God's saints have been in worse places than among the
pots, but now they soar aloft into the heavenly places in Christ Jesus.
Verse 14. When the almighty scattered kings in it, it was white
as snow in Salmon. The victory was due to the Almighty arm alone; he
scattered the haughty ones who came against his people, and he did it as easily
as snow is driven from the bleak sides of Salmon. The word white appears
to be imported into the text, and by leaving it out the sense is easy. A
traveller informed the writer that on a raw and gusty day, he saw the side of
what he supposed to be Mount Salmon suddenly swept bare by a gust of wind, so
that the snow was driven hither and thither into the air like the down of
thistles, or the spray of the sea: thus did the Omnipotent one scatter all the
potentates that defied Israel. If our authorized version must stand, the
conjectures that the bleached bones of the enemy, or the royal mantles cast away
in flight, whitened the battle field, appear to be rather too far fetched for
sacred poetry. Another opinion is, that Salmon was covered with dark forests,
and appeared black, but presented quite another aspect when the snow covered it,
and that by this noteworthy change from sombre shade to gleaming whiteness, the
poet sets forth the change from war to peace. Whatever may be the precise
meaning, it was intended to pourtray the glory and completeness of the divine
triumph over the greatest foes. In this let all believers rejoice.
Verse 15. Here the priests on the summit of the chosen hill
begin to extol the Lord for his choice of Zion as his dwelling place. The hill of God is as the hill of Bashan,
accurately, "a hill of God is Bashan, "that is to say, Bashan is an eminent
mountain, far exceeding Zion in height. According to the Hebrew custom, every
great or remarkable thing is thus designated. Where we talk of the Devil's Dyke,
the Devil's Ditch, the Devil's Punch Bowl, etc., the more commendable idiom of
the Hebrews speaks of the hill of God, the trees of the Lord, the river of God,
etc. An high hill as the hill of Bashan, or rather, "a mount of
peaks is Bashan." It does not appear that Zion is compared with Bashan, but
contrasted with it. Zion certainly was not a high hill comparatively; and it is
here conceded that Bashan is a greater mount, but not so glorious, for the Lord
in choosing Zion had exalted it above the loftier hills. The loftiness of nature
is made as nothing before the Lord. He chooses as pleases him, and, according to
the counsel of his own will, he selects Zion, and passes by the proud, uplifted
peaks of Bashan; thus doth he make the base things of this world, and things
that are despised, to become monuments of his grace and sovereignty.
Verse 16. Why leap ye, ye high hills? Why are ye moved to
envy? Envy as ye may, the Lord's choice is fixed. Lift up yourselves, and even
leap from your seats, ye cannot reach the sublimity which Jehovah's presence has
bestowed on the little hill of Moriah. This is the hill which God desireth to dwell in. Elohim
makes Zion his abode, yea, Jehovah resides there. Yea, the Lord will dwell in it for ever. Spiritually the
Lord abides eternally in Zion, his chosen church, and it was Zion's glory to be
typical thereof. What were Carmel and Sirion, with all their height, compared to
Zion, the joy of the whole earth! God's election is a patent of nobility. They
are choice men whom God has chosen, and that place is superlatively honoured
which he honours with his presence.
Verse 17. The chariots of God are twenty thousand. Other
countries, which in the former verse were symbolically referred to as "high
hills, "gloried in their chariots of war; but Zion, though far more lowly, was
stronger than they, for the omnipotence of God was to her as two myriads of
chariots. The Lord of Hosts could summon more forces into the field than all the
petty lords who boasted in their armies; his horses of fire and chariots of fire
would be more than a match for their fiery steeds and flashing cars. The
original is grandly expressive: "the war chariots of Elohim are myriads, a
thousand thousands." The marginal reading of our Bibles, even many
thousands, is far more correct than the rendering, even
thousands of angels. It is not easy to see where our venerable
translators found these "angels, "for they are not in the text; however, as it
is a blessing to entertain them unawares, we are glad to meet with them in
English, even though the Hebrew knows them not; and the more so because it
cannot be doubted that they constitute a right noble squadron of the myriad
hosts of God. We read in De 33:2, of the Lord's coming "with ten thousands of
saints, "or holy ones, and in Heb 12:22, we find upon mount Zion "an innumerable
company of angels, "so that our worthy translators putting the texts together,
inferred the angels, and the clause is so truthfully explanatory, that we have
no fault to find with it. The Lord is among them, as in Sinai, in the
holy place, or, "it is a Sinai in holiness." God is in Zion as the Commander
in chief of his countless hosts, and where he is, there is holiness. The throne
of grace on Zion is as holy as the throne of justice on Sinai. The displays of
his glory may not be so terrible under the new covenant as under the old; but
they are even more marvellous if seen by the spiritual eye. Sinai has no
excellency of glory beyond Zion; but the rather it pales its light of law before
the noontide splendours of Zion's grace and truth. How joyful was it to a pious
Hebrew to know that God was as truly with his people in the tabernacle and
temple as amid the terrors of the Mount of Horeb; but it is even more heart
cheering to us to be assured that the Lord abides in his church, and has chosen
it to be his rest for ever. May we be zealous for the maintenance of holiness in
the spiritual house which God condescends to occupy; let a sense of his presence
consume, as with flames of fire, every false way. The presence of God is the
strength of the church; all power is ours when God is ours. Twenty thousand
chariots shall bear the gospel to the ends of the earth; and myriads of agencies
shall work for its success. Providence is on our side, and it "has servants
everywhere." There is no room for a shade of doubt or discouragement, but every
reason for exultation and confidence.
Verse 18. Thou hast ascended on high. The ark was conducted
to the summit of Zion; God himself took possession of the high places of the
earth, being extolled and very high. The antitype of the ark, the Lord Jesus,
has ascended into the heavens with signal marks of triumph. To do battle with
our enemies, the Lord descended and left his throne; but now the fight is
finished, he returns to his glory; high above all things is he now exalted. Thou hast led captivity captive. A multitude of the sons of
men are the willing captives of Messiah's power. As great conquerors of old led
whole nations into captivity, so Jesus leads forth from the territory of his foe
a vast company as the trophies of his mighty grace. From the gracious character
of his reign it comes to pass that to be led into captivity by him is for our
captivity to cease, or to be itself led captive; a glorious result indeed. The
Lord Jesus destroys his foes with their own weapons: he puts death to death,
entombs the grave, and leads captivity captive. Thou hast received gifts for men,
or, received gifts among
men: they have paid thee tribute, O mighty Conqueror, and shall in every age
continue to do so willingly, delighting in thy reign. Paul's rendering is the
gospel one: Jesus has "received gifts for men, "of which he makes plentiful
distribution, enriching his church with the priceless fruits of his ascension,
such as apostles, evangelists, pastors, and teachers, and all their varied
endowments. In him, the man who received gifts for man, we are endowed with
priceless treasures, and moved with gratitude, we return gifts to him, yea, we
give him ourselves, our all. Yea, for the rebellious also: these gifts the rebels are
permitted to share in; subdued by love, they are indulged with the benefits
peculiar to the chosen. The original runs, "even the rebellious, "or, "even from
the rebellious, "of which the sense is that rebels become captives to the Lord's
power, and tributaries to his throne.
"Great King of grace my heart subdue,
I would be led in triumph too;
As willing captive to my Lord,
To own the conquests of his word."
That the Lord God might dwell among them. In the conquered
territory, Jah Elohim would dwell as Lord of all, blessing with his
condescending nearness those who were once his foes. When Canaan was conquered,
and the fort of Zion carried by storm, then was there found a resting place for
the ark of God; and so when the weapons of victorious grace have overcome the
hearts of men, the Lord God, in all the glory of his name, makes them to be his
living temples. Moreover, the ascension of Jesus is the reason for the descent
of the Lord God, the Holy Spirit. Because Jesus dwells with God, God dwells with
men. Christ on high is the reason for the Spirit below. It was expedient that
the Redeemer should rise, that the Comforter should come down.
Verse 19. Blessed be the Lord. At the mention of the
presence of God among men the singers utter an earnest acclamation suggested by
reverential love, and return blessings to him who so plentifully blesses his
people. Who daily loadeth us with benefits. Our version contains a
great and precious truth, though probably not the doctrine intended here. God's
benefits are not few nor light, they are loads; neither are they intermittent,
but they come "daily; "nor are they confined to one or two favourites, for all
Israel can say, he loadeth us with benefits. Delitzsch
reads it, "He daily bears our burden; "and Alexander, "Whoever lays a load upon
us, the Mighty God is our salvation." If he himself burdens us with sorrow, he
gives strength sufficient to sustain it; and if others endeavour to oppress us,
there is no cause for fear, for the Lord will come to the rescue of his people.
Happy nation, to be subdued by a King whose yoke is easy, and who secures his
people from all fear of foreign burdens which their foes might try to force upon
Even the God of our salvation. A name most full of glory to
him, and consolation to us. No matter how strong the enemy, we shall be
delivered out of his hands; for God himself, as King, undertakes to save his
people from all harm. What a glorious stanza this is! It is dark only because of
its excessive light. A world of meaning is condensed into a few words. His yoke
is easy, and his burden is light, therefore blessed be the Saviour's name for
evermore. All hail! thou thrice blessed Prince of Peace! All thy saved ones
adore thee, and call thee blessed. Selah. Well may the strings need tuning, they have borne an
unparalleled strain in this mighty song. Higher and yet higher, ye men of music,
lift up the strain. Dance before the ark, ye maidens of Israel; bring forth the
timbrel, and sing unto the Lord who hath triumphed gloriously.
Verse 20. He that is our God is the God of salvation. The
Almighty who has entered into covenant with us is the source of our safety, and
the author of our deliverances. As surely as he is our God he will save us. To
be his is to be safe. And unto God the Lord belong the issues from
death. He has ways and means of rescuing his children from death: when they
are at their wit's end, and see no way of escape, he can find a door of
deliverance for them. The gates of the grave none can open but himself, we shall
only pass into them at his bidding; while on the heavenward side he has set open
the doors for all his people, and they shall enjoy triumphant issues from death.
Jesus, our God, will save his people from their sins, and from all else besides,
whether in life or death.
Verse 21. But God shall wound the head of his enemies. The
Preserver is also the Destroyer. He smites his foes on the crown of their pride.
The seed of the woman crushes the serpent's head. There is no defence against
the Lord, he can in a moment smite with utter destruction the lofty crests of
his haughty foes. And the hairy scalp of such an one as goeth on still in his
trespasses. He may glory in his outward appearance, and make his hair his
pride, as Absalom did; but the Lord's sword shall find him out, and pour out his
soul. Headstrong sinners will find that providence overcomes them despite their
strong heads. They who go on in sin will find judgments come on them; and the
adornment of their pride may be made the instrument of their doom. He covers the
head of his servants, but he crushes the head of his foes. At the second coming
of the Lord Jesus, his enemies will find his judgments to be beyond conception
Verse 22. This verse, by the insertion of the words,
my people, is made to bear the meaning which the translators
thought best; but, if their interpolated word is omitted, we probably get nearer
to the sense. The Lord said, I will bring again from Bashan, I will
bring again from the depths of the sea. Though his foes should endeavour to
escape, they should not be able. Amos describes the Lord as saying, "Though they
dig into hell, thence shall mine hand take them; though they climb up to heaven,
thence will I bring them down: and though they hide themselves in the top of
Carmel, I will search and take them out thence; and though they be hid from my
sight in the bottom of the sea, thence will I command the serpent, and he shall
bite them." As there is no resisting Israel's God, so is there no escape from
him, neither the heights of Bashan nor the depths of the great sea can shelter
from his eye of detection, and his hand of justice. The powers of evil may flee
to the utmost ends of the earth, but the Lord will arrest them, and lead them
back in chains to adorn his triumph.
Verse 23. That thy foot may be dipped in the blood of thine
enemies. Vengeance shall be awarded to the oppressed people, and that
most complete and terrible. And the tongue of thy dogs in the same. So overwhelming
should be the defeat of the foe that dogs should lick their blood. Here "the
stern joy which warriors feel" expresses itself in language most natural to the
oriental ear. To us, except in a spiritual sense, the verse sounds harshly; but
read it with an inner sense, and we also desire the utter and crushing defeat of
all evil, and that wrong and sin may be the objects of profound contempt.
Terrible is the God of Israel when he cometh forth as a man of war, and dreadful
is even the Christ of God when he bares his arm to smite his enemies.
Contemplate Revelation 19 and note the following: --"And I saw heaven opened,
and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True,
and in righteousness he doth judge and make war. His eyes were as a flame of
fire, and on his head were many crowns; and he had a name written, that no man
knew, but he himself. And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood; and his
name is called The Word of God... And I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he
cried with a loud voice, saying to all the fowls that fly in the midst of
heaven, come and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God;
that ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of
mighty men, and the flesh of horses, and of them that sit upon them, and the
flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small and great. And I saw the beast,
and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war
against him that sat on the horse, and against his army. And the beast was
taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with
which he deceived them that had the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped
his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with
brimstone. And the remnant were slain with the sword of him that sat upon the
horse, which sword proceeded out of his mouth: and all the fowls were filled
with their flesh."
Verse 24. They have seen thy goings, O God. In the song the
marchings of the Lord had been described; friends and foes had seen his goings
forth with the ark and his people. We suppose that the procession was now
climbing the hill, and entering the enclosure where the tabernacle of the ark
was pitched; it was suitable at this moment to declare with song that the tribes
had seen the glorious progress of the Lord as he led forth his people. Even the goings of my God, my King, in the sanctuary. The
splendid procession of the ark, which symbolised the throne of the great King,
was before the eyes of men and angels as it ascended to the holy place; and the
psalmist points to it with exultation before he proceeds to describe it. All
nature and providence are, as it were, a procession attending the great Lord, in
his visitations of this lower globe. Winter and summer, sun and moon, storm and
calm, and all the varied glories of nature swell the pomp of the King of kings,
of whose dominion there is no end.
Verse 25. The singers went before, the players on
instruments followed after. This was the order of the march, and God
is to be worshipped evermore with due decorum. First the singers, and lastly the
musicians, for the song must lead the music, and not the music drown the
singing. In the midst of the vocal and instrumental band, or all around them,
were the maidens: among them were the damsels playing with timbrels. Some
have imagined that this order indicates the superiority of vocal to instrumental
music: but we need not go so far for arguments, when the simplicity and
spirituality of the gospel already teach us that truth. The procession depicted
in this sublime song was one of joy, and every means was taken to express the
delight of the nation in the Lord their God.
Verse 26. Bless ye God in the congregations. Let the
assembled company magnify the God whose ark they followed. United praise is like
the mingled perfume which Aaron made, it should all be presented unto God. He
blesses us; let him be blessed. Even the Lord, from the fountain of Israel. A parallel
passage to that in Deborah's song: "They that are delivered from the noise of
archers in the places of drawing water, there shall they rehearse the righteous
acts of the Lord." The seat of the ark would be the fountain of refreshing for
all the tribes, and there they were to celebrate his praises. "Drink, "says the
old inscription, "drink, weary traveller; drink and pray." We may alter one
word, and read it, drink and praise. If the Lord overflows with grace, we should
overflow with gratitude. Ezekiel saw an ever growing stream flow from under the
altar, and issue out from under the threshold of the sanctuary, and wherever it
flowed it gave life: let as many as have quaffed this life giving stream glorify
"the fountain of Israel."
Verse 27. There is little Benjamin with their ruler. The
tribe was small, having been greatly reduced in numbers, but it had the honour
of including Zion within its territory. "And of Benjamin he said, The beloved of
the Lord shall dwell in safety by him; and the Lord shall cover him all the day
long, and he shall dwell between his shoulders." Little Benjamin had been
Jacob's darling, and now the tribe is made to march first in the procession, and
to dwell nearest to the holy place. The princes of Judah and their council. Judah was a large
and powerful tribe, not with one governor, like Benjamin, but with many princes
"and their company, "for so the margin has it. "From thence is the shepherd, the
stone of Israel, "and the tribe was a quarry of stones wherewith to build up the
nations: some such truth is hinted at in the Hebrew. The princes of Zebulun, and the princes of Naphtali. Israel
was there, as well as Judah; there was no schism among the people. The north
sent a representative contingent as well as the south, and so the long
procession set forth the hearty loyalty of all the tribes to their Lord and
King. O happy day, when all believers shall be one around the ark of the Lord;
striving for nothing but the glory of the God of grace. The prophet now puts into the mouth of the assembly a song,
foretelling the future conquests of Jehovah.
Verse 28. Thy God hath commanded thy strength. His decree
had ordained the nation strong, and his arm had made them so. As a commander in
chief, the Lord made the valiant men pass in battle array, and bade them be
strong in the day of conflict. This is a very rich though brief sentence, and,
whether applied to an individual believer, or to the whole church, it is full of
consolation. Strengthen, O God, that which thou hast wrought for us. As
all power comes from God at first, so its continual maintenance is also of him.
We who have life should pray to have it more "abundantly; "if we have strength
we should seek to be still more established. We expect God to bless his own
work. He has never left any work unfinished yet, and he never will. "When we
were without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly; "and now, being
reconciled to God, we may look to him to perfect that which concerneth us, since
he never forsakes the work of his own hands.
Verse 29. Because of thy temple at Jerusalem shall kings
bring presents unto thee. The palace of God, which towered above
Jerusalem, is prophesied as becoming a wonder to all lands, and when it grew
from the tabernacle of David to the temple of Solomon, it was so. So splendid
was that edifice that the queen of far off Sheba came with her gifts; and many
neighbouring princes, overawed by the wealth and power therein displayed, came
with tribute to Israel's God. The church of God, when truly spiritual, wins for
her God the homage of the nations. In the latter day glory this truth shall be
far more literally and largely verified.
Verse 30. Rebuke the company of spearmen; or, the beasts
of the reeds, as the margin more correctly renders it. Speak to
Egypt, let its growing power and jealousy be kept in order, by a word from thee.
Israel remembers her old enemy, already plotting the mischief, which would break
out under Jeroboam, and begs for a rebuking word from her Omnipotent Friend.
Antichrist also, that great red dragon, needs the effectual word of the Lord to
rebuke its insolence. The multitude of the bulls, the stronger foes; the proud,
headstrong, rampant, fat, and roaring bulls, which sought to gore the chosen
nation, --these also need the Lord's rebuke, and they shall have it too. All
Egypt's sacred bulls could not avail against a "thus saith Jehovah." Popish
bulls, and imperial edicts have dashed against the Lord's church, but they have
not prevailed against her, and they never shall. With the calves of the people. The poorer and baser sort
are equally set on mischief, but the divine voice can control them; multitudes
are as nothing to the Lord when he goes forth in power; whether bulls or calves,
they are but cattle for the shambles when Omnipotence displays itself. The
gospel, like the ark, has nothing to fear from great or small; it is a stone
upon which every one that stumbleth shall be broken.
Till every one submit himself with pieces of silver. The
Lord is asked to subdue the enemies of Israel, till they rendered tribute in
silver ingots. Blessed is that rebuke, which does not break but bend; for
subjection to the Lord of hosts is liberty, and tribute to him enriches him that
pays it. The taxation of sin is infinitely more exacting than the tribute of
religion. The little finger of lust is heavier than the loins of the law. Pieces
of silver given to God are replaced with pieces of gold. Scatter thou the people that delight in war. So that,
notwithstanding the strong expression of Ps 68:23, God's people were peace men,
and only desired the crushing of oppressive nations, that war might not occur
again. Let the battles of peace be as fierce as they will; heap coals of fire on
the heads of enemies, and slay their enmity thereby. That "they who take the
sword should perish by the sword, "is a just regulation for the establishment of
quiet in the earth. What peace can there be, while blood thirsty tyrants and
their myrmidons are so many? Devoutly may we offer this prayer, and with equal
devotion, we may bless God that it is sure to be answered, for "he breaketh the
bow and cutteth the spear in sunder, he burneth the chariot in the fire."
Verse 31. Princes shall come out of Egypt. Old foes shall be
new friends. Solomon shall find a spouse in Pharaoh's house. Christ shall gather
a people from the realm of sin. Great sinners shall yield themselves to the
sceptre of grace, and great men shall become good men, by coming to God. Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God. Cush
shall hasten to present peace offerings. Sheba's queen shall come from the far
south. Candace's chamberlain shall ask of Him who was led as a lamb to the
slaughter. Abyssinia shall yet be converted, and Africa become the willing
seeker after grace, eagerly desiring and embracing the Christ of God. Poor
Ethiopia, thy hands have been long manacled and hardened by cruel toil, but
millions of thy sons have in their bondage found the liberty with which Christ
made men free; and so thy cross, like the cross of Simon of Cyrene, has been
Christ's cross, and God has been thy salvation. Hasten, O Lord, this day, when
both the civilization and the barbarism of the earth shall adore thee, Egypt and
Ethiopia blending with glad accord in thy worship! Here is the confidence of thy
saints, even thy promise; hasten it in thine own time, good Lord.
Verse 32. Sing unto God, ye kingdoms of the earth. Glorious
shall that song be in which whole empires join. Happy are men that God is one
who is consistently the object of joyous worship, for not such are the demons of
the heathen. So sweet a thing is song that it ought to be all the Lord's; a
secular concert seems almost a sacrilege, a licentious song is treason. O sing praises unto the Lord. Again and again is God to be
magnified; we have too much sinning against God, but cannot have too much
singing to God. Selah. Well may we rest now that our contemplations have
reached the millennial glory. What heart will refuse to be lifted up by such a
Verse 33. To him that rideth upon the heavens of heavens, which
were of old. Before, he was described in his earthly manifestations,
as marching through the desert; now, in his celestial glory, as riding in the
heavens of the primeval ages. Long ere this heaven and earth were made, the
loftier abodes of the Deity stood fast; before men or angels were created, the
splendours of the Great King were as great as now, and his triumphs as glorious.
Our knowledge reaches but to a small fragment of the life of God, whose "goings
forth were of old, even from everlasting." Well might the Jewish church hymn the
eternal God, and well may we join therewith the adoration of the Great
"Ere sin was born, or Satan fell,
He led the host of morning stars.
Thy generation who can tell?
Or count the number of thy years?"
Lo, he doth send out his voice, and that a mighty voice. Was there a thunderclap just then heard in heaven? Or, did the poet's mind flash
backward to the time when from the heaven of heavens the voice of Jehovah broke
the long silence and said, "Light be, "and light was. To this hour, the voice of
God is power. This gospel, which utters and reveals his word, is the power of
God unto salvation to every one that believeth. Our voices are fitly called to
praise him whose voice spoke us into being, and gives us the effectual grace
which secures our well being.
Verse 34. Ascribe ye strength unto God. When even his voice
rends the rocks and uproots the cedars, what cannot his hand do? His finger
shakes the earth; who can conceive the power of his arm? Let us never by our
doubts or our daring defiances appear to deny power unto God; on the contrary,
by yielding to him and trusting in him, let our hearts acknowledge his might.
When we are reconciled to God, his omnipotence is an attribute of which we sing
with delight. His excellency is over Israel. The favoured nation is
protracted by his majesty; his greatness is to them goodness, his glory is their
defence. And his strength is in the clouds. He does not confine his
power to the sons of men, but makes it like a canopy to cover the skies. Rain,
snow, hail, and tempest are his artillery; he rules all nature with awe
inspiring majesty. Nothing is so high as to be above him, or too low to be
beneath him; praise him, then, in the highest.
Verse 35. O God, thou art terrible out of thy holy places.
You inspire awe and fear. Thy saints obey with fear and trembling, and thine
enemies flee in dismay. From thy threefold courts, and especially from the holy
of holies, thy majesty flashes forth and makes the sons of men prostrate
themselves in awe. The God of Israel is he that giveth strength and power unto
his people. In this thou, who art Israel's God by covenant, art
terrible to thy foes by making thy people strong, so that one shall chase a
thousand, and two put ten thousand to flight. All the power of Israel's warriors
is derived from the Lord, the fountain of all might. He is strong, and makes
strong: blessed are they who draw from his resources, they shall renew their
strength. While the self sufficient faint, the All sufficient shall sustain the
feeblest believer, Blessed be God. A short but sweet conclusion. Let our souls
say Amen to it, and yet again, Amen.
EXPLANATORY NOTES AND QUAINT SAYINGS
Whole Psalm. In this Psalm we have especial reason to
condemn or to admire the timidity, or the caution and delicacy, of our
translators, whichever it may be considered, for the manner in which they have
rendered the names of the Almighty. They almost universally translate them "God"
or "Lord; "whereas, it has been observed that, almost all the remarkable titles
of the Deity are employed in describing and praising the person addressed here.
He is called "Elohim" in Ps 68:2; "Adonai, "Ps 68:12; "Shaddai, "Ps 68:15;
"Jehovah, "Ps 68:17; "Jah, "Ps 68:19; and "Al, "Ps 68:20. The Hebrew names of
God have, each of them, a distinct and peculiar meaning. No one word will
suffice for them all. The vague use of the terms "God" and "Lord" in our
translation can never convey to the reader's mind the important ideas which the
original expression, if properly translated, would bear, and we have lost a
strong additional confirmation of the deity of Messiah, by abandoning the
testimony which the ascription to him of God's peculiar titles would give to
this great truth. R. H. Ryland.
Whole Psalm. As 65 opened with a reference to the form of
blessing (Nu 6:24-26), so this with a reference to the prayer used when the
cloud pillar summoned the camp to commence a march. There the presence
(panim) of God shed saving light on his people; here his enemies flee
from it (mippanayv), Ps 68:1... In the Jewish ritual the Psalm is used at
Pentecost, the Anniversary of the Giving of the Law, and the Feast of Finished
Harvest... The remarkable character of the Psalm is indicated by the fact that
there are no fewer than thirteen words in it which are not found elsewhere. The
Pentecostal Gift of Tongues seems needed for its full exposition. William
Whole Psalm. By many critics esteemed the loftiest effusion
of David's lyrical muse. William Binnie.
Whole Psalm. To judge from the antiquity of its language,
the concise description, the thoroughly fresh, forcible, and occasional
artlessly ironical expression of its poetry, we consider this poem as one of the
most ancient monuments of Hebrew poetry. Boettcher.
Whole Psalm. It must be confessed that in this Psalm there
are as many precipices, and as many labyrinths, as there are verses, or even
words. It has not inappropriately been designated the cross of critics, the
reproach of interpreters. Simon de Muis.
Whole Psalm. The beginning of this Psalm clearly intimates
that the inspired psalmist had light given him to see the march of Israel
through the wilderness, the ark of the covenant moving before the people to find
a resting place. The psalmist is filled with praise, when he is enabled to see
that God revealed his Fatherly love in the whole of that movement--that his eye
was upon the fatherless, the widow, the solitary, and afflicted; but David is
also carried by the Spirit to the Mount of Olives, where he sees the ascending
Lord; he sees the triumphal chariots, with an innumerable company of angels, and
then beholds the Lord welcomed in glory as the mighty Conqueror; and not only
so, but as having received or purchased gifts for men, even the rebellious (Ps
68:18), "that the Lord God might dwell among them, "or within them.
"Wherefore, "the command of our Father is, "come out from among them, and be ye
separate, "etc. (2Co 6:17-18). The doxology of God's people is, "Blessed be the
Lord, who daily loadeth us with his benefits." Our blessed Master attends day by
day to all our wants, and causes his love to flow to us, because he is God our
Salvation--Selah. What comfort ought this to afford under every condition! for
the Lord Jesus goes before us through the desert. He is touched with the feeling
of our infirmities. The widow, the fatherless, the desolate, are all the objects
of his care and love. He has gone before us to prepare our heavenly rest; the
work is finished. He now comes, day by day, to load us with blessings, and at
the last will carry us safely through death into life and glory. To the Lord our
Saviour belong the issues from death; then, "Death, where is thy sting?" etc.
Ridley H. Herschell, in "Strength in Weakness. Meditations on some of
the Psalms in time of Trial, "1860.
Verse 1. Let God arise, etc. The moving ark (See Nu
10:35-36) is a type of Jesus going forth to cast down rebel foes. It is high joy
to trace the Antitype's victorious march. How mightily the Lord advanced! The
strength of God was in his arm. His sword was Deity. His darts were barbed with
all Jehovah's might. "He had on his vesture and on his thigh a name written,
King of kings, and Lord of lords." Re 19:16. His foes, indeed, strove mightily.
It was no easy work to rescue souls from Satan's grasp, or to lay low the prison
house of darkness. The enemy rushed on, clad in his fiercest armour, wild in his
keenest rage, wily in his deadliest crafts. He plied his every temptation, as a
terrific battery. But the true Ark never quailed. The adversary licked the dust.
Malignant passions maddened in opposing breasts. The kings stood up; rulers took
counsel; all plots were laid; the ignominious death was planned and executed.
But still the Ark moved on. The cross gave aid, not injury. The grave could not
detain. Death could not vanquish. The gates of hell fly open. The mighty
conqueror appears. And, as in Canaan, the ark ascended Zion's hill amid
triumphant shouts, so Jesus mounts on high. The heaven of heavens receives him.
The Father welcomes the all conquering Saviour. Angelic hosts adore the glorious
God man. The Rising Prayer has full accomplishments, "Rise up, Lord, and let
thine enemies be scattered, and let them that hate thee flee before thee." And
now, from glory's throne, he cheers his humble followers in their desert march.
Their toils, their conflicts, and their fears are many. They ofttimes seem as a
poor worm beneath the crushing feet. But they survive, they prosper, they lift
up their head. As of old the ark was victory, so Jesus is victory now. Yes,
every child of faith shall surely set a conquering foot upon the host of foes.
Hear this, ye mad opposers, and desist. Where are the nations who resisted
Israel? Where are the Pharaohs, the beleaguered kings, the Herods, the chief
priests, the Pilates? Share not their malice, lest you share their end. Read in
this word your near destruction, "Rise up, Lord, and let thine enemies be
scattered, and let them that hate thee flee before thee." And, as the Rising
Prayer has never failed, so, too, the Resting Prayer now teems with life.
"Return, O Lord." Jesus is ready to fly back. Israel's many thousands wait, but
wait not in vain. "Yet a little while, and he that shall come will come, and
will not tarry, "Heb 10:37. O joyful day, triumphant sight! What ecstasy, what
shouts, what glory! Salvation's Lord returns. Welcome, welcome to him! Henry
Law, in "`Christ is All.' The Gospel of the Old Testament," 1858.
Verse 1. Arise. The mercifulness of God is seen in his
patience toward the wicked, implied in the word arise, for he seemeth, as
it were, to sleep (Ps 44:23), and not to mark what is done amiss. The
Lord is patient, and would have none to perish, but would have all men to come
to repentance. He was longer in destroying one city (Jericho, Jos 6:4),
than in building the whole world; slow to wrath, and ready to forgive, desiring
not the death of a sinner, but rather he should amend. He doth not arise to
particular punishments, much less to the general judgement, but after long
suffering and great goodness. "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, how often would I, "said
our Lord, "have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her
chickens under her wings, and ye would not." Mt 23:37. John Boys.
Verse 1. Let his enemies be scattered. You may, if you
please, take the words either as a prayer, or as a prophecy: as a prayer
that they may; or as a prophecy, that they shall be scattered. Or,
you may read it, Surgente Domino, As soon as the Lord shall arise, his
enemies shall be scattered, and so make it a theological axiom: and so it is
a proposition aeternae veritatis, everlastingly true, true in the first
age of the world, and true in the last age of the world, and will be true to the
world's end. We may make it our prayer, that they may be destroyed; and we may
prophesy, that they shall be destroyed. Summa votorum est, non ex incerto
poscentis, sed ex cognitione scientiaque sperantis, saith Hilary. It
is a prayer not proceeding from a doubting and wavering heart, as if God did at
sometimes deliver his church, and at others fail and leave her to the will of
her enemies; but grounded upon certain knowledge and infallible assurance that
he will "arise, and not keep silence, " and avenge himself of his enemy.
For there is a kind of presage and prophecy in prayer: if we pray as we should,
he hath promised to grant our request; which is a fairer assurance than any
prophet can give us. Let God arise, and God will arise, is but the
difference of a tense, and the Hebrews commonly use the one for the other...
In this prayer or prophecy, or conclusion, you may, as in a
glass, behold the providence of God over his people, and the destiny and fatal
destruction of wicked men. Or, you may conceive God sitting in heaven, and
looking down upon the children of men, and laughing to scorn all the designs of
his enemies; his exsurgat, his rising, as a tempest to scatter them, and
as a fire to melt them. And these two, exsurgat and dissipabuntur,
the rising of God and the destruction of his enemies, divide the text, and
present before our eyes two parties or sides, as it were, in main opposition.
Now, though the exsurgat be before the dissipabuntur, God's rising
before the scattering, yet there must be some persons to rouse God up and awake
him before he will arise to destroy. We will, therefore, as the very order of
nature required, consider first the persons which are noted out unto us by three
several appellations, as by so many marks and brands in their forehead. They
2. Haters of God;
3. Wicked men.
But God, rising in this manner, is more especially
against the fact than the person, and against the person only for the fact. We
must, therefore, search and inquire after that; and we find it wrapped up and
secretly lurking in the dissipabuntur, in their punishment; for
scattering supposes a gathering together, as corruption doth generation. That,
then, which moved God to rise is this: his enemies, they that hated
him, the wicked, were gathered together, and consulted against God and his
church, as we see it this day; and, seeing it, are here met together to fall
down before God in all humility, that he may arise and scatter them. This is
nunc opportunitatis, the very time and appointed time for
God to arise. In which phrase is implied a kind of pause and
deliberation, as if God were not always up, and ready to execute judgment. And,
hereby, he manifests--
1. His patience to the wicked: he is not always up, as it were,
to destroy his enemies;
2. His justice, which cometh at length, though it come not so
soon as men in misery expect;
3. His mercy to his children: though for a while he seem to
sleep, and not to hearken to the voice of their complaints, yet, at last, he
rises up and helps them.
Lastly, we shall take notice of the effects, or end, of this
rising; and that is the destruction of his enemies, here drawn out to our view,
in four several expressions, as in so many colours: --
1. Dissipabuntur, they shall be scattered;
2. Fugient, they shall fly;
3. Deficient, they shall vanish like smoke;
4. Liquefient, they shall be melted as wax; which all
meet and are concentrated in peribunt, they shall perish at the
presence of God. Anthony Farindon.
Note continued on See Psalms on "Job 42:10."
Verses 1-3. See Psalms on "Ps 68:1" for further
Verse 3. But let the righteous be glad. The wicked flee from
the presence of God, since it inspires them with terror; the righteous on the
other hand rejoice in it, because nothing delights them more than to think that
God is near them. John Calvin.
Verse 4. Extol him that rideth upon the heavens. Or, as
Symmachus, Jerome, Bishop Lowth, Merrick, and others render, "Prepare the way
for him who rideth through the deserts": twbre aravoth; i.e., who rode through the wilderness on the
cherubim; alluding to the passage of the ark. "Comprehensive Bible."
Verse 4. Rideth. Said, perhaps, with allusion to the
cherubim on which Jehovah was borne (Ps 18:10), God himself being the Leader and
Captain of his people, riding as it were at their head as an earthly captain
might lead his army, riding on a war horse. J. J. Stewart Perowne.
Verse 4. Upon the heavens. The ancient versions in general
render the word twkrek super occasus,
or occasum. The desert or solitude is the proper and
general meaning of it, and there is no authority to render it by the heavens,
but that of the Rabbins, which, indeed, is little or none; and of the
Chaldee paraphrase which gives it twbrek hyrqy
hyorwk super thronam gloriae ejus in nono caelo who sits
upon the throne of his glory in the ninth heaven. The psalmist here alludes, as
I apprehend, to the passage of the Israelites through the deserts in their way
to the promised land, and describes it in many of the principal circumstances of
it in the following verses; and God is said to ride, or be carried
through the deserts, as the ark of his presence was carried through
them, and accompanied the Israelites in all their various stages during their
continuance and pilgrimage in them. Samuel Chandler.
Verse 4. God always goes at the head of his people through
the deserts of suffering and need; in the deserts of trouble they find in him a
true leader. E. W. Hengstenberg.
Verse 4. His name JAH. JAH, as the concentration of
Jehovah, is the more emphatic term (Stier). It occurs for the first time
in Ex 15:2. Frederic Fysh, in "A Lyrical Literary Version of the Psalms,"
Verse 5. A father of the fatherless. In a spiritual sense,
the orphans, whose father God is, says Hilary, are those who have
renounced their father the Devil, and those to whom Christ, at his departure,
sent another Comforter, according to his promise--"I will not leave you
Verse 5. Does not Jas 1:27 refer to this verse, for we have
the fatherless, the widow, and then the holiness, of the
God we serve? Andrew A. Bonar.
Verse 5. God in his holy habitation. Albeit the Lord be
infinite and uncomprehended by any place, yet hath he appointed a trysting place
where his people shall find him by his own ordinance, to wit, the assembly of
his saints, his holy temple shadowing forth Christ to be incarnate, who now is
in heaven, now is incarnate, and sitting at the right hand of God, in whom
dwells the Godhead; here, here is God to be found. David Dickson.
Verse 6. God setteth the solitary in families. It may be
interpreted of the fruitfulness and increase of the church with converts, under
the gospel dispensation, even from among the Gentiles, who were before solitary,
or were alone, without God and Christ, and aliens from the commonwealth of
Israel; but, being called and converted by the ministry of the word, were
brought into and placed in gospel churches, or families... Gospel churches, like
families, have a master over them, who is Christ the Son and firstborn, of whom
they are named; where are saints of various ages, sizes, and standing; some
fathers, some young men, and some children; where are provisions suitable for
them, and stewards to give them their portion of meat in due season, who are the
ministers of the word; and laws and rules, by which they are directed and
regulated, and everything is kept in good decorum. John Gill.
Verse 8. The God of Israel. Sinai was the seat not only of
God, but of the covenant God of the people of Israel; from which the law
was proclaimed, and the covenant struck between God and his people. Hermann
Verse 9. The Thou in the Hebrew is emphatic:
Thine inheritance, even when it was wearied (i.e., worn out)
thou didst confirm; or, "fortify it." Thou who alone
couldest strengthen one worn out, didst so for thy people. A. R. Fausset.
Verse 9. A liberal rain. The words translated a liberal
rain, read literally in the Hebrew a rain of freenesses; and I agree
with interpreters in thinking that he alludes to the blessing as having come in
the exercise of free favour, and to God, as having of his own unprompted
goodness provided for all the wants of his people. Some read, a desirable
rain; others a rain flowing without violence, or gentle;
but neither of these renderings seems eligible. Others read, a
copious or plentiful rain; but I have already stated what appears to
me to be the preferable sense. John Calvin.
Verse 9. A gracious rain; that is, of manna. Edmund Law
(1703-1787), quoted by Richard Warner in loc., 1828.
Verse 9. Rain. One fountain, says Cyril, waters thy
paradise, and the rain that falls upon all the world is the same; it is white in
the bloom of the hawthorn, red in the rose, purple in the hyacinth, and diverse
kinds, and all in all; yet it itself is the same and of the same kind. . . . So also the Holy Spirit, though he is one and the same and not
divisible, yet to every one he divideth grace according as he wills. Thomas
Verse 9. A plentiful rain. Thy love has been as a shower!
The returns, but a dew drop, and that dew drop stained with sin. James
Harrington Evans, 1785-1849.
Verse 10. Thy congregation. The words are choice and
expressive. Addressing God, (the poet) intentionally and emphatically calls the
people of Israel Ktyx thy combined
congregation, in contrast to former divisions and various dissensions, to
signify, that the people was now welded together, formed into one society, and
united at the same time, that it was well ordered, and constituted as the
society of God, wherein his laws flourished and were wont to be observed.
Verse 10. Thy congregation. Or, Thy living creatures,
Ktyh, ta zwa, LXX animalia, Vulgate; probably a reference to the
immense number of quails which were miraculously brought to the camp of the
Israelites, and, in a manner, dwelt around it. Note in the
Verse 10. Thy congregation. Or, Thy living creatures.
That desolate place, where only wild beasts before could live, was now by those
showers of manna (Ps 68:9) enabled to sustain a multitude of other tamer
living creatures, even of men and all their flocks and
herds. Henry Hammond.
Verse 10. (first clause). Rather: --"As for thy food
(manna and quails), they dwelt in the midst of it." Edmund Law.
Verse 10. (first clause). As to thy food, they
dwelt amidst it. The ambiguity of the word hyx has occasioned various renderings of this line. Parkhurst
considers the radical sense of hyx is "to
be vigorous, strong; "hence the noun denotes force, a body of men (2Sa
23:13); and also that which gives strength, the means of support, or food (Jud
6:4 17:10); and compare Ne 9:6. Our translators took the term in the first
sense; I take it in the second, because the connection seems to require it, and
because (tyx) refers always to a body of
men, as soldiers, as actually engaged in some kind of warfare. Hence what is
called the troop of Philistines (2Sa 23:13) is called the camp of
the Philistines. 1Ch 11:15. And, lastly, because the common version has no
antecedent to which hk, in it, or
amidst it, can refer; but this version has one in the noun food. I
think there is then a reference not only to the manna, but to the quails, which
God brought in abundance around the camp. Ex 16:13 Nu 11:31. Thus he prepared
in his goodness for the poor. Benjamin Boothroyd.
Verse 10. Thou hast prepared in thine own sweetness for the
poor, O God. In thine own sweetness, not in his sweetness. For
the needy he is, for he hath been made weak, in order that he may be made
perfect: he hath acknowledged himself indigent, that he may be replenished.
Verse 11. The Lord gave the word: great was the company of
those that published it. You shall find, when the enemies of the
church are destroyed, that God hath many preachers made that do teach his
praises... The words in the original are very significant, and do note two
things. First, the word which you read company, in the Hebrew it is
"army, "great was the army of preachers. An army of preachers is a great matter;
nay, it is a great matter to have seven or eight good preachers in a great army;
but to have a whole army of preachers that it glorious. Secondly, it doth note
out the heartiness of this preaching army, for the word vpg, soul, is to be understood as in that place of Ecclesiastes;
it is said there, "The words or book of the preacher, "which, being in the
feminine gender, doth suppose nephesh, and as if he should say, as
Vatablus hath it; the words or book of him that hath a preaching soul or heart,
or the words of a preaching soul or heart. So here where it is said, great is
the army of preachers, the word being in the feminine gender, it is as if he
should say, great is the army of preaching souls, whose very hearts within them
shall preach of the Lord's works. Now, my brethren, it is much to have a
preaching army; but if this army shall with heart and soul preach of God's
praise, O that is a blessed thing. Yet thus shall it be when the enemies of God
shall be destroyed. And, therefore, seeing God will not lose all those sermons
of his own praises, in due time the enemies of the church shall be scattered.
William Bridge, in "The True Soldier's Conroy." 1640.
Verse 11. It is owing to the word, the appointment, and
power of God, that any persons are induced or enabled to preach the gospel.
John Newton (1725-1807), in "Messiah."
Verses 11-12. This account of Israel's victories is
applicable to victories obtained by the exalted Redeemer, when the enemies of
man's salvation were vanquished by the resurrection of Christ, and the heathen
nations were compelled to own his power; and this great victory was first
notified by women to the disciples. From "A Practical Illustration of
the Book of Psalms; by the Author of the Family Commentary on the New
Testament." (Mrs. Thompson.) 1826.
Verses 11-12. The Lord did give his word at his ascension,
and there were a multitude of them that published it, and by this means kings of
armies were put to flight: they conquered by the word: there is not such another
way to rout kings and their armies. William Strong. 1654.
The Lord giveth the word!
A great company of women announce the glad tidings!
Kings with their armies flee--they flee!
And those, who dwell within the house, divide the spoil!
Although they lie among the hearth stones,
They are become like a dove's wings overlaid with silver,
And like her pinions overlaid with yellow gold.
When the Almighty scattereth kings,
They glisten therein, as snow upon Salmon.
Those who dwell within the house--i.e., the women. They are
thus described in allusion to their retired habits of life, in eastern
countries. Lie among the hearth stones--i.e., are habitually employed in
the lowest domestic offices and whose ordinary dress, therefore, is mean and
soiled. The hearth stones --Hebrew rests (for boilers). They are
become --by being decked in the spoils of the enemy. --Glisten as
snow --Hebrew (each woman) is snowy: therein--i.e., in the
spoils distributed amongst them. French and Skinner's Translation and
Verse 12. Kings of armies did flee apace. In the Hebrew it
is, they fled, they fled; fled is twice. Why so? That is, they did flee very
hastily, and they fled most confusedly, they fled all ways; they fled, they
fled, noting the greatness of the flight. William Bridge.
Verse 12. The kings of hosts shall flee. The "hosts" are the
numerous well equipped armies which the kings of the heathens lead forth to the
battle against the people of God. The unusual expression, "kings of hosts,
"sounds very much like an ironically disparaging antithesis to the customary
"Jahve of Hosts." Bottcher, quoted by Delitzsch.
Verse 12. She that tarried at home. That is, all the
noncombatants, saith Kimchi. Or, the women also (those domi
portae) came forth to pillage. These days of the gospel do abound with
many godly matrons and holy virgins. And it is easy to observe that the New
Testament affords more store of good women than the old. John Trapp.
Verse 12. Divided the spoil, not merely (as Hupfeld)
"receives her portion of the spoil, "but rather, "distributes among her
daughters and handmaidens, etc., the share of the spoil" which her husband has
brought home. J. J. Stewart Perowne.
Verse 14. Salmon or Zalmon, properly Tsalmon, Nwmlu a woody hill near Shechem (Jud 9:48). Whether it
is this that's referred to in Ps 69:14, is disputed. Some interpreters take
Nwmlu here in its etymological meaning of
darkness, Mlu; thus Luther renders the
clause "so wird es helle wo es dunkel ist, "thus it be bright where it
is dark, and understands it with a Messianic reference. Ewald adopts much
the same rendering. The majority, however, retain the name as a proper name, but
exhibit great variety in their explanation of the passage. Hengstenberg thinks
that the phrase, "it snows on Tsalmon, "is equivalent to "there is brightness
where there was darkness, "the hill, originally dark with wood, is now white
with snow. De Dieu supposes a comparison: Tsalmon is white with the bones of the
slaughtered kings, as if with snow. Some suppose that there is here a mere note
of time: it was winter, the snow was on Tsalmon (Herder); and this Hupfeld
adopts, with the explanation that the statement is made derisively, with
reference to those who tarried at home, deterred by the winter's snow. He
considers the passage (Ps 68:12-14) as a fragment of an ancient song,
celebrating some of the early conquests of Israel in Canaan, and deriding those,
who, from indolence or fear, shrank from the enterprise. He translates thus:
"The kings of the armies, flee, flee,
And the housewife shares the spoil!
Will ye lie among the shippens?
Pigeons feathers decked with silver,
And their wings with yellow gold!
As the Almighty scattered kings therein,
It was snowing on Tsalmon."
--William Lindsay Alexander, in "A Cyclopaedia of Biblical
Verse 14. The verb may be viewed as in the second person--
Thou, O God! didst make it fair and white as Mount Salmon with
snow. The reader may adopt either construction, for the meaning is the
same. It is evident that David insists still upon the figure of the whiteness of
silver, which he had previously introduced. The country had, as it were, been
blackened or sullied by the hostile confusion into which it was thrown, and he
says that it had now recovered its fair appearance, and resembled Salmon, which
is well known to have been ordinarily covered with snows. Others think that
Salmon is not the name of a place, but an appellative, meaning a dark
shade. I would retain the commonly received reading. At the same time, I
think that there may have been an allusion to the etymology. It comes from the
word Mlu, tselem, signifying
a shade, and Mount Salmon had been so called on account of its
blackness. This makes the comparison more striking; for it intimates that as the
snows whitened this black mountain, so the country had resumed its former
beauty, and put on an aspect of joy, when God dispelled the darkness which had
lain upon it during the oppression of enemies. John Calvin.
Verse 14. It was as white as snow in Salmon. That is, this
thine inheritance, thy peculiar people, appeared as bright and glorious in the
sight of their neighbours, as the snowy head of Salmon glistens by the
reflection of the sunbeams. Thomas Fenton.
Verse 14. White as snow in Salmon. The expression here used
seems to denote, that everything seemed as bright and cheerful to the mind of
God's people, as Salmon does to their eyes, when glistening with snow. As snow
is much less common, and lies a much shorter time in Judaea than in England, no
wonder that it is much more admired; accordingly, the son of Sirach speaks of it
with a kind of rapture. "The eye will be astonished at the beauty of its
whiteness, and the heart transported at the raining of it." Ecclus. 43:18 or 20.
Verse 14. Salmon. Dean Stanley conjectures that Salmon in
another name for Mount Ebal; it was certainly near Shechem (see Jud 9:48), but
it is almost hopeless to expect to identify it, for Mr. Mills, the industrious
author of "Nablus and the modern Samaritans, "could not find any one who knew
the name of Salmon, neither could he discover any traditions in reference to it,
or indeed any allusion to it in Samaritan literature. The word signifies a
shade, and may, perhaps, popularly be accepted as identical with the name the
"Black Forest." C. H. S.
Verse 15. Hill of Bashan. The world's physical greatness
must yield to the church's spiritual grandeur. The "hill of God" is here an
emblem of the world kingdoms, which (Ps 65:6) are great only by the grace
of God. A great hill reminds us of the creative power of God. Hence, "the
hill of Elohim" (the general name of God as the Creator) stands in
contrast to the hill which (Ps 68:16) "the Lord" (Jehovah) will dwell in
for ever. It lay in the north, in the region east of Jordan, or the land of
Hermon, the kingdom of Og, the most formidable enemy whom Israel encountered on
their march to Canaan. "The hill of Bashan is the high snow summit of Anti
Lebanon, or Hermon, the extreme limit of Bashan. There was a peculiar propriety,
from its position on the boundary between Judaea and the heathen world, in
employing it as a symbol of the world's might (Ps 68:22 42:6 89:12)"
(Hengstenberg). The original name of Hermon as Sion; i.e., lofty
(De 4:48); allied in sound to Zion, which suggested the contrast here between
the world hills and the Lord's hill. A. R. Fausset.
"A mountain of God Mount Bashan is.
A mountain of peaks Mount Bashan is,
Why are ye piqued, ye peaked mountains?
At the mountain which God desires to dwell in?
Yea, Jehovah will dwell therein forever."
Verse 16. Why leap ye? As triumphing, and making a show of
your natural advantages over Sion. Or, to insult over it, and compare and
equalise yourselves in honour with it; poetical kind of speeches. Others
translate it, Why gaze you, as though you were ravished with
admiration? John Diodati.
Verse 16. This is the hill which God desireth to dwell in.
This low, little, barren hill of Zion; and God's election maketh the difference,
as it did of Aaron's rod from the rest, and doth still of the church from the
rest of the world. The Lamb Christ is on Mount Zion. Re 14:1. John Trapp.
Verse 17. The chariots of God. What are these "chariots of
God?" Come, we will not stand to mince the matter, look but round about thee,
and thou shalt see those innumerable chariots and angels here spoken of;
for so many creatures as thou seest, so many angels and chariots of God
thou seest; they are all his host, they are all his chariots wherein he rides;
and, whether you see it or no, The Lord is among them, as in Sinai, in the
holy place. The glory of the Lord fills them all (had we but our eyes open
to see it so), and they are all at his command, and there is not one creature
but doth his pleasure. Oh, brethren! how glorious and blessed a thing it is,
that looking round about us to behold and see, that look how many creatures
visible and invisible you see or conceive in thy mind to be, for
thy soul now to look on them as so many fiery chariots and horsemen for its
defence, protection, and preservation! And, on the other hand, "How fearful a
thing it is to fall into the hands of the living God, "who hath all these
chariots and horsemen at his command to execute his will and vengeance on those
that neglect, hate, and oppose him. John Everard, in "Militia Caelestis, or
the Heavenly Host." 1653.
"About his chariot numberless were poured
Cherubs, and seraph, potentates, and thrones,
And Virtues, winged Spirits, and chariots win
From the armoury of God, where stand of old Myriads."
--John Milton, in "Paradise Lost."
Verse 17. Twenty-thousand; rather, two myriads,
Mytbr singular wkr; for twbr only here in
the dual, the infinite number doubled. "Thousands of angels, "literally,
thousands of iteration; i.e., with margin, many thousands
(Bythner, Gesenius, &c.). Nagv only
here, from hgv, to repeat. The
rendering of angels was probably suggested by the reference to Sinai,
next clause (see De 33:2, where for saints read holy ones; )
chariots bkr being used
collectively for those who rode in them, as often elsewhere. William de
Verse 18. Thou hast ascended on high, etc. Some think it
refers to God's goings forth on behalf of his people Israel, leading them forth
to victory, taking their enemies captive, and enriching them with the spoils.
Suppose it be so, we are warranted to consider it as mainly referring to Christ,
for so the apostle has applied it. Eph 4:8. The apostle not only applies it to
Christ, but proves it applicable. Thus he reasons (Ps 68:9-10), "Now that
he ascended, what is it but that he also descended," etc. The captivity which he
led captive was our spiritual enemies who had led us captive-- Satan, death;
and, having obtained the victory, he proceeds to divide the spoils. Gifts to
men --as David made presents. And hence comes our ordinances, ministers,
etc. There was a glorious fulfilment immediately after his ascension, in a rich
profusion of gifts and graces to his church, like David's presents. Here it is
received; in Ephesians, gave. He received that he might give;
received the spoil that he might distribute it. But, as I wish to appropriate
the passage to the work allotted me, the whole of that to which I would at this
time call your attention will be contained in two things:
1. The great blessings of the Christian ministry.
(a) Ministers are received for, and are given
to, you by Christ. As men, and as sinful men, ministers are as nothing,
and wish not to make anything of themselves; but, as the gifts of Christ, it
becomes you to make much of them. (1.) If you love Christ, you will make
much of your minister, on account of his being his gift--a gift designed
to supply Christ's absence in a sort. He is gone ("ascended"), but he gives you
his servants. By and by you hope to be with him, but as yet you are as sheep in
the wilderness. He gives you a shepherd. (2.) If you fear God, you will
be afraid of treating your pastor amiss, seeing he is the gift of Christ. God
took it ill of Israel for despising Moses. Nu 12:8. He is "my
(b) Ministers are not only given to, but received
for you, of God the Father, as a covenant blessing, among the spiritual
blessings in heavenly places in Christ. In this view, consider that Christ
received nothing at his Father's hand but what cost him dear--cost him his life.
Or, if the allusion be to the dividing of the spoils, suppose we say, he
received them as a conqueror receives the spoils at the hand of the foe. Your
minister was one of those who, like yourselves, were brands consuming in the
fire. Christ took him from your enemies and gives him to you. Make much of the
gift on this account. "This I received of the Amorite."
(c) Consider your unworthiness of such a blessing. You are
men, mere men, and what is more, rebellious men, who had joined
with Satan. And must you share the spoils? It is not usual to divide the spoils
amongst rebels... Men that put him to death had these gifts given to them; and
we should all have done the same. Some of you, it is likely, have been vile and
abandoned characters and yet, etc...
(d) The end of it: That the Lord God might dwell among
them. "But will God, indeed, dwell with men?" God had not dwelt with the
world, nor in it, while sin bore the rule; but Christ's mediation was for the
bringing it about. "Will God, indeed, dwell with men?" He will, and how? It is
by the means of ordinances and ministers. A church of Christ is God's house; and
where any one builds a house, it is a token that he means to dwell there. What a
blessing to a village, a country, for God to build a house in it. It is by this
that we may hope for a blessing upon the means to the conversion of our children
and friends, and for the edification of believers.
2. Point out some
corresponding duties as answering to these your privileges.
(a) Constant and diligent attendance at the house of God. If the
house of God be God's dwelling, let it be yours, your home. If God gives you a
pastor, do you thankfully receive and prize him. He hath not dealt so with every
(b) Cheerfully contribute to his support. Christ has given you
freely, and you ought to give him freely. Consider it is not as a gift, but as a
debt, and not as done to him, but to Christ.
(c) Follow those things which make for peace, with which the
presence and blessing of God are connected.
(d) Shun those things that tend to provoke the Lord to withdraw
his gifts, and to cease to dwell among you. Andrew Fuller's Sketch of a
Sermon, addressed to the Church at Moulton, on the Ordination of Mr.
(since Doctor) Carey, August 1st, 1787.
Verse 18. But who is he of whom it is written, that he
ascended up on high? I confess that the sixty-eighth Psalm, wherein
these words are first written, is literally to be understood, not of any
triumph, for the slaughter of the host of Sennacherib, which was done in the
time of king Hezekiah (as the Jews do most fabulously dream), when the very
title of this Psalm, that ascribes it unto David, doth sufficiently confute this
vanity; nor yet for any of the victories of David which he obtained against his
bordering enemies, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Idumaeans, and the
Philistines (as some would have it); but of that great and glorious pomp which
was then done and showed, when king David with great joy and triumph did bring
the ark of the covenant into the hill of Sion; and, therefore, these
words, Thou art gone up on high, so dignify that the ark, which formerly
had lain in an obscure place, and was transported from one place to
another, was now ascended and seated in a most illustrious and
conspicuous place, even in the kingly palace; and these words. Thou hast
led captivity captive, do signify those enemies which formerly had
spoiled and wasted divers countries; but now, being vanquished by king
David, were led captive in this triumph (for so it was the manner of
those times, as Plutarch doth excellently declare in the life of Paulus
Amilius); and the other words, thou hast received gifts for men, do
signify those spoils that were freely offered for conditions of peace, and were
triumphantly carried about in this pompous show, for the greater solemnity of
the same; and then (as the manner was among the chieftains when they triumphed,
Bellica laudatis dona dedisse viris, to bestow warlike gifts upon
worthy men), gifts were bestowed on several men, in several manner, as Sigonius
sheweth. Yet I say that, mystically, this Psalm is an epinikion, or a triumphal song, penned by king David
upon the foresight of Jesus Christ arising from the dead, and with great joy and
triumph ascending up into heaven, and thence sending his Holy Spirit unto
his apostles and disciples; and having overcome all his enemies, collecting by
the ministry of his preachers, his churches and chosen people together, and so
guiding and defending them here in this life, until he doth receive them into
eternal glory. Griffith Williams. 1636.
Verse 18. Thou hast led captivity captive. The expression is
emphatic. He has conquered and triumphed over all the powers which held us in
captivity, so that captivity itself is taken captive. The spirit and force of it
is destroyed; and his people, when released by him, and walking in his ways,
have no more to apprehend from those whose captives they were, than a conqueror
has to fear from a prisoner in chains. The energy of the phrase is not unlike
that of the apostle: "Death is swallowed up in victory." John Newton.
Verse 18. Thou hast led captivity captive, etc. The ancient
prophecy of David is fulfilled here on the foot of mount Olivet. To take
"captivity captive, "signifies that Christ conquered the allied principalities
and powers, the devil, sin, death, and hell; and that he deprived them of the
instruments wherewith they enslaved men. He not only silenced the cannon on the
spiritual Gibraltar, but he took rock, fortifications, and all. He not only
silenced the horrible and destructive battlements of the powerful and compactly
united ghostly enemies, but he threw down the towers, razed the castles, and
took away the keys of the dungeons. He is the Master henceforth, and for ever.
He did, also, at the same time, save his people. Where, O Jesus, is the army of
which thou art the Captain? "Here! all the names are written in pearls on the
breastplate which I wear as a high priest." He had no sooner left the grave than
he began to distribute his gifts, and did so all along the road on his way to
his Father's house; and, especially after he entered the heaven of heavens, did
he shower down gifts unto men, as a mighty conqueror loaded with treasures with
which to enrich and adorn his followers and people. They were gifts of mercy:
gifts to the rebellious; to those who threw down their arms at his feet in
penitent submission, that the Lord God may dwell among them. The
apostle shows that a portion of these gifts are gifts of ministry. Accordingly,
whenever God condescends to dwell among a people and in a country, he gives that
people and country this ministry. He sends them his gospel in the mouths of
faithful servants. He establishes there his house; the board and the
candlestick; and then, in his Spirit, he dwells there and blesses his heritage.
Christmas Evans. 1766-1838.
Verse 18. The apostle (Eph 4:8) does not quote the words of
the Psalm literally, but according to the sense. The phrase, Thou hast
received gifts, as applied to Christ as his glorification, could only be for
the purpose of distribution, and hence the apostle quotes them in this sense,
He gave gifts to men. This Hebrew phrase may be rendered either, "Thou
hast received gifts in the human nature, "or, "Thou hast received gifts for the
sake of man" (see Ge 18:28 2Ki 14:6). The apostle uses the words in the sense of
the purpose for which the gifts were received, and there is no
contradiction between the psalmist and the apostle. Thus, the difficulties of
this quotation vanish when we examine them closely, and the Old and New
Testaments are in complete harmony. Rosenmueller expounds Psalm 18, and never
mentions the name of Christ; and the neologists in general see no Messiah in the
Old Testament. To these, indeed, Eph 4:8, if they had any modesty, would present
a formidable obstacle. Paul asserts the Psalm belongs to Christ, and they assert
he is mistaken, and that he has perverted (De Wette) and destroyed its meaning.
They assert that Lamarom, "on high, "means the heights of Mount Zion, and
Paul says it means heaven. Which is right? (see the scriptural usage of the
word, Ps 7:7 18:16 93:4 102:19 Jer 25:30 Isa 37:23). These passages connect the
word with the heavenly mansions, and justify the application of the apostle.
William Graham, in "Lectures on St. Paul's Epistle to the
Verse 18. No sooner is Christ inaugurated in his throne, but
he scatters his coin, and gives gifts. He gives gifts, or the gift of gifts, the
gift of the Holy Ghost. "If thou knewest the gift of God, " said Christ to the
Samaritan woman (Joh 4:10): that gift was the water of life, and that water of
life was the Spirit, as John, who knew best his mind, gave the interpretation,
"This spake he of the Spirit." Joh 7:39. O my soul, consider of this princely
gift of Christ! Such a gift was never before, but when God gave his Son. "God so
loved the world, that he gave his Son; "and Christ so loved the world, that he
gave his Spirit. But, O my soul, consider especially to whom this Spirit was
given; the application of the gift is the very soul of thy meditation: "unto us
a Son is given, "saith the prophet (Isa 9:6); and "unto us the Holy Ghost is
given, " saith the apostle (Ro 5:5); and yet above all consider the reasons of
this gift in reference to thyself. Was it not to make thee a temple and
receptacle of the Holy Ghost? Stand a while on this! Admire, O my soul, at the
condescending, glorious, and unspeakable love of Christ in this! It was infinite
love to come down into our nature when he was incarnate; but this is more, to
come down into thy heart by his Holy Spirit: he came near to us then, but as if
that were not near enough, he comes nearer now, for now he unites himself unto
thy person, now he comes and dwells in thy soul by his Holy Spirit. Isaac
Verse 18. Thou hast received gifts for men. The glorious
ascending of God from Mount Sinai, after the giving of the law, was a
representation of his "ascending up far above all heavens, that he might fill
all things, "as Eph 4:10. And, as God then "led captivity captive" in the
destruction of Pharaoh and the Egyptians, who had long held his people in
captivity and under cruel bondage; so dealt the Lord Christ now in the
destruction and captivity of Satan and all his powers (Col 2:15); only, whereas
it is said in the Psalm that he "received gifts for men, "here (Eph 4:8) it is
said that "he gave gifts to men, "wherein no small mystery is couched; for,
although Christ is God, and is so gloriously represented in the Psalm, yet an
intimation is given that he should act what is here mentioned in a condition
wherein he was capable to receive from another, as he did in this matter. Ac
2:33. And so the phrase in the original doth more than insinuate: Mdab twgtm txql "Thou hast received gifts in Adam,
"--in the man, of human nature. And signifies as well to give as to
receive, especially when anything is received to be given. Christ
received this gift in the human nature to give it unto others. Now, to what end
is this glorious theatre, as it were, prepared, and all this preparation made,
all men being called to the preparation of it? It was to set out the greatness
of the gift he would bestow, and the glory of the work which he would effect;
and this was to furnish the church with ministers, and ministers with gifts for
the discharge of their office and duty. And it will one day appear that there is
more glory, more excellency, in giving one poor minister unto a congregation, by
furnishing him with spiritual gifts for the discharge of his duty, than in the
pompous instalment of a thousand popes, cardinals, or metropolitans. The worst
of men, in the observance of a few outward rites and ceremonies, can do the
latter; Christ only can do the former, and that as he is ascended up on high to
that purpose. John Owen.
Verse 18. As the passage which we have now been considering
is applied by Paul in a more spiritual sense to Christ (Eph 4:8), it may be
necessary to show how this agrees with the meaning and scope of the psalmist. It
may be laid down as an incontrovertible truth, that David, in reigning over
God's ancient people, shadowed forth the beginning of Christ's eternal kingdom.
This must appear evident to every one who remembers the promise made to him of a
never failing succession, and which received its verification in the person of
Christ. As God illustrated his power in David, by exalting him with the view of
delivering his people, so has he magnified his name in his only begotten Son.
But let us consider more particularly how the parallel holds. Christ, before he
was exalted, emptied himself of his glory, having not merely assumed the form of
a servant, but humbled himself to the death of the cross. To show how exactly
the figure was fulfilled, Paul notices, that what David had foretold was
accomplished in the person of Christ, by his being cast down to the lowest parts
of the earth in the reproach and ignominy to which he was subjected, before he
ascended to the right hand of his Father. Ps 22:7. That in thinking upon the
ascension, we might not confine our views to the body of Christ, our attention
is called to the result and fruit of it, in his subjecting heaven and earth to
his government. Those who were formerly his inveterate enemies he compelled to
submission and made tributary; this being the effect of the word of the Gospel,
to lead men to renounce their pride and their obstinacy, to bring down every
high thought which exalteth itself, and reduce the senses and the affections of
men to obedience unto Christ. As to the devils and reprobate men who are
instigated to rebellion and revolt by obstinate malice, he holds them bound by
secret control, and prevents them from executing intended destruction. So far
the parallel is complete. Nor, when Paul speaks of Christ having given gifts
to men, is there any real inconsistency with what is here stated, although
he has altered the words, having followed the Greek version in accommodation to
the unlearned reader. It was not himself that God enriched with the spoils of
the enemy, but his people; and neither did Christ seek, or need to seek, his
advancement, but made his enemies tributary, that he might adorn his Church with
the spoil. From the close union subsisting between the head and the members, to
say that God manifest in the flesh received gifts from the captives, is one and
the same thing with saying that he distributed them to his Church. What is said
in the close of the verse is no less applicable to Christ; that he obtained his
victories that as God he might dwell among us. Although he departed, it was not
that he might remove to a distance from us, but, as Paul says, "that he might
fill all things." Eph 4:10. By his ascension to heaven, the glory of his
divinity has been only more illustriously displayed; and, though no longer
present with us in the flesh, our souls receive spiritual nourishment from his
body and blood, and we find, notwithstanding distance of place, that his flesh
is meat indeed, and his blood drink indeed. John Calvin.
Verse 18. Thou hast received gifts for men. Hebrew
Mdak, in man; "in human
nature", says Dr. Adam Clarke, "and God, manifest in human flesh, dwells
among mortals." "The gifts which Jesus Christ distributes to man he has
received in man, in and by virtue of his incarnation, and it is in
consequence of his being made man that it may be said, `the Lord God dwells
among them; 'for Jesus was called Immanuel, `God with us, 'in consequence
of his incarnation." Editors note to Calvin in loc.
Verse 18. Yea, for the rebellious also. I feared, also, that
this was the mark that the Lord did set on Cain, even continual fear and
trembling under the heavy load of guilt that he had charged upon him for the
blood of his brother Abel. Thus did I wind and twine and shrink under the burden
that was upon me, which burden also did so oppress me, that I could neither
stand, nor go, nor lie, either at rest or quiet. Yet that saying would sometimes
come to my mind, He hath received gifts for the rebellious. Ps 68:18. "The
rebellious, "thought I; why, surely, they are such as once were under subjection
to their prince, even those who, after they have sworn subjection to his
government, have taken up arms against him; and this, thought I, is my very
condition; once I loved him, feared him, served him; but now I am a rebel; I
have sold him. I have said, let him go if he will; but yet he has gifts for
rebels, and then why not for me? John Bunyan, in "Grace Abounding."
Verse 18. (last clause). Thou didst not regard their
former disobedience, but, even although seeing them contradicting, thou didst
continue to do them good, until thou madest them thine own abode
Verse 18. (last clause). The Chaldee has, "Upon the
rebellious, who become proselytes and return by repentance, the shechinah of the
glory of the Lord God dwelleth."
Verse 19. Blessed be the Lord, etc. I think the sweet singer
of Israel seems to raise his note to the emulation of the choir of heaven in the
melody of their Allelujahs; yea, let me say, now that he sings above in
that blessed consort of glorious spirits, his ditty cannot be better than this
that he sang here upon earth, and wherein we are about to bear our parts at this
time. Prepare, I beseech you, both your ears for David's song, and your hearts
and tongues for your own. And first, in this angelic strain your thoughts cannot
but observe the descant and the ground. The descant of gratulation, Blessed
be the Lord, wherein is both applause and excitation; an applause given to
God's goodness, and an excitation of others to give that applause. The ground is
a threefold respect. Of what God is in himself, God and Lord; of what God
is and doth to us, which loadeth us daily with benefits; of what
he is both in himself and to us, the God of our salvation; which last
(like to some rich stone) is set off with a dark foil: To God the Lord belong
the issues from death. So, in the first for his own sake, in the
second for our sakes, in the third for his own and ours; as God, as Lord, as a
benefactor; as a Saviour and deliverer. Blessed be the Lord. It is
not hard to observe that David's Allelujahs are more that his
Hosannas, his thanks more than his suits. Ofttimes doth he praise God
when he begs nothing; seldom ever doth he beg that favour, for which he doth not
raise up his soul to an anticipation of thanks; neither is this any other than
the universal under song of all his heavenly ditties, Blessed be the
Lord. Praises (as our former translation hath it) is too low; honour
is more than praise; blessing is more than honour. Neither is it for nothing
that from this word Krb, to bless,
is derived Krb, the knee,
which is bowed in blessing; and the crier before Joseph proclaimed
Abrech, calling for the honour of the knee from all beholders. Ge 41:43.
Every slight, trivial acknowledgment of worth is a praise; blessing is in a
higher strain of gratitude, that carries the whole sway of the heart with it in
a kind of divine rapture. Praise is a matter of compliment; blessing of
devotion. The apostle's rule is, that the less is blessed of the greater,
Abraham of the King of Salem, the prophet's charge is, that the greater
should be blessed of the less, yea, the greatest of the least, God of
man. This agrees well; blessing is an act that will bear reciprocation; God
blesseth man imperatively; man blesseth God optatively. God blesseth man in the
acts of mercy; man blesseth God in the notions, in the expressions of thanks.
God blesses man when he makes him good and happy; man blesseth God when he
confesseth how good, how gracious, how glorious he is; so as the blessing is
wholly taken up in agnation, (acknowledgment), in celebration: in the one we
acknowledge the bounty of God to us; in the other we magnify him vocally,
really, for that bounty. O see, then, what high account God makes of the
affections and actions that his poor, silly, earth creeping creatures; that he
gives us in them power to bless himself, and takes it as an honour to be blessed
of us. David wonders that God should so vouchsafe to bless man; how much
more must we needs wonder at the mercy of God, that will vouchsafe to be blessed
by man, a worm, an atom, a nothing? Yet both, James tells us, that
with the tongue we bless God; and the psalmist calls for it here as a
service of dear acceptation, Blessed be the Lord. Even we men live not
(chameleon like) upon the air of thanks, nor grow the fatter for praises; how
much less our Maker? O God, we know well that whatsoever men or angels do, or do
not, thou canst not but be infinitely blessed in thyself; before ever any
creature was, thou didst equally enjoy thy blessed self from all eternity: what
can this worthless, loose film of flesh either add to or detract from thine
infiniteness? Yet thou, that humbleth thyself to behold the things
that are done in heaven and earth, humblest thyself also to accept the weak
breath of our praises, that are sent up to thee from earth to heaven. How should
this encourage the vows, the endeavours of our hearty thankfulness, to see them
graciously taken? If men would take up with good words, with good desires, and
quit our bonds for thanks, who would be a debtor? With the God of Mercy this
cheap payment is current. If he, then, will honour us so far as to be blessed of
us, Oh let us honour him so far as to bless him. Joseph Hall, in "A Sermon of
Public Thanksgiving for the Wonderful Mitigation of the late
Verse 19. Blessed be the Lord. It is not a little remarkable
to see the saints so burdened and overcharged with the duty of singing his
1. They are forced to come off with an excess of praise, and
offer to praise him and even leave it, as it were, as they found it, and say no
more, lest they should spill his praises; but, as Re 5:12, "Worthy is the Lamb
to receive glory and honour, "though I be not worthy or able to give it to him.
2. That they speak broken language and half sentences in their
songs, when they are deeply loaden with the deep sense of his love, as
Blessed be the Lord, who daily loadeth us with benefits; there is
no more in the original but Blessed be the Lord, that loadeth us.
John Spalding, in "Synaxis Sacra." 1703.
Verse 19. Who daily loadeth us with benefits. Though some
may have more than others, yet every one hath his load, as much as he can carry.
Every vessel cannot bear up with the like sail, and therefore God, to keep us
from oversetting, puts on so much as will safest bring us to heaven, our desired
port. Ezekiel Hopkins.
Verse 19. Who daily loadeth us with benefits. Such is man's
self love that no inward worth can so attract his praises as outward
beneficence. While thou makest much of thyself, every one shall speak well of
thee; how much more while thou makest much of them! Here God hath met with us
also. Not to perplex you with scanning the variety of senses wherewith I have
observed this Psalm, above all other of David's, to abound; see here, I beseech
you, a fourfold gradation of divine bounty. First, here are benefits. The
word is not expressed in the original, but necessarily implied in the sense: for
there are but three loads whereof man is capable from God, favours, precepts,
punishments, the other two are out of the road of gratulation. When we might
therefore have expected judgments, behold benefits. And those, secondly,
not sparingly hand fulled out to us, but dealt to us by the whole load:
loaded with benefits. Whom, thirdly, doth he load but us? Not
worthy and well deserving subjects, but us, Myrrwm, rebels. And, lastly, this he doth, not at one dole
and no more (as even churls' rare feasts use to be plentiful), but Mwy Mwy successively, unweariedly, perpetually. One
favour were too much, here are benefits; a sprinkling were too much, here
is a load; once were too oft, here is daily enlarging, (largeness,
bounty). Cast your eyes, therefore, a little upon this threefold exaggeration of
beneficence; the measure, a load of benefits; the subject, unworthy
us; the time, daily. Who daily loadeth us with
benefits. Where shall we begin to survey this vast load of mercies? Were it
no more, but that he hath given us a world to live in, a life to enjoy, air to
breathe in, earth to tread on, fire to warm us, water to cool and cleanse us,
clothes to cover us, food to nourish us, sleep to refresh us, houses to shelter
us, variety of creatures to serve and delight us; here were a just load. But
now, if we yet add to these, civility of breeding, dearness of friends,
competency of estate, degrees of honour, honesty or dignity of vocation, favour
of princes, success in employments, domestic comforts, outward peace, good
reputation, preservation from dangers, rescue from evils; the load is well
mended. If yet, ye shall come closer, and add due proportion of body, integrity
of parts, perfection of senses, strength of nature, mediocrity of health,
sufficiency of appetite, vigour of digestion, wholesome temper of seasons,
freedom from cares; this course must needs heighten it yet more. If still ye
shall add to these, the order, and power, and exercise of our inward faculties,
enriched with wisdom, art, learning, experience, expressed by a handsome
elocution, and shall now lay all these together that concern estate, body, mind;
how can the axle tree of the soul but crack under the load of these favours?
But, if from what God hath done for us as men, we look to what he hath done for
us as Christians; that he enlivened us by his Spirit, fed us by his word and
sacraments, clothed us with his merits, bought us with his blood, becoming vile
to make us glorious, a curse, to invest us with blessedness; in a word, that he
hath given himself to us, his Son for us; Oh the height, and depth,
and breadth of the rich mercies of our God! Oh the boundless, topless,
bottomless, load of divine benefits, whose immensity reaches from the centre of
this earth, to the unlimited extent of the very imperial heavens! "Oh that
men would praise the Lord for his goodness, and declare the wonders that
he hath done for the children of men." Joseph Hall.
Verse 20. Our God is the God of salvation (that is of
deliverance, of outward deliverance); and unto God the Lord belong the
issues from death, or the goings out from death; that is, God hath
all ways that lead out from death in his own keeping, he keepeth the key of the
door that lets us out from death. When a man is in the valley of the shadow of
death, where shall he issue out? Where shall he have a passage? Nowhere, saith
man, he shall not escape. But God keepeth all the passages; when men think they
have shut us up in the jaws of death, he can open them, and deliver us. To
him belong the issues from death; it is an allusion to one that
keepeth a passage or a door: and God is a faithful keeper, and a friendly
keeper, who will open the door for the escape of his people, when they cry unto
him. Joseph Caryl.
Verse 20. And unto God the Lord belong the issues from
death. Buildings stand by the benefit of their foundations that sustain
them, support them; and of their buttresses that comprehend them, embrace them;
and of their contignations (a framing together; from contigno, to join
together, or lay with beams and rafters), that knit and unite them. The
foundation suffers them not to sink; the buttresses suffer them not to swerve;
the contignation and knitting suffer them not to cleave. The body of our
building is in the former part of this verse; it is this; He that is our God is
the God of salvation; ad salutes, of salvations, in the plural, so it is
in the original; the God that gives us spiritual and temporal salvation too. But
of this building, the foundation, the buttresses, the contignation, are in this
part of the verse, which constitutes our text, and in the three diverse
acceptations of the words amongst our expositors, Unto God the Lord belong
the issues of death. For, first, the foundation of this building (that our
God is the God of all salvation) is laid in this, That unto this God the Lord
belong the issues of death; that is, it is in his power to give us an
issue and deliverance, even then, when we are brought to the jaws and teeth of
death, and to the lips of that whirlpool, the grave; and so, in this
acceptation, this exitus mortis, the issue of death, is liberatio a
morte, a deliverance from death; and this is the most obvious and most
ordinary acceptation of these words, and that upon which our translation lays
hold: the issues from death. And then, secondly, the buttresses that
comprehend and settle this building: that, He that is our God is the God of
salvation, are thus raised; Unto God the Lord belong the issues of death,
that is, the disposition and manner of our death, what kind of issue and
transmigration we shall have out of this world, whether prepared or sudden,
whether violent or natural, whether in our perfect senses or shaked or
disordered by sickness; there is (no) condemnation to be argued out of that, no
judgment to be made upon that; for howsoever they die, precious in his sight
is the death of his saints, and with him are the issues of death, the ways
of our departing out of this life are in his hands; and so in this sense of the
words, this exitus mortis, the issue of death, is liberatio in morte,
a deliverance in death; not that God will deliver us from dying, but that he
will have a care of us in the hour of death, of what kind soever our passage be;
and this sense and acceptation of the words, the natural frame and contexture
doth well and pregnantly administer unto us. And then, lastly, the contignation
and knitting of this building, that He that is our God, is the God of all
salvation, consists in this, Unto this God the Lord belong the issues of death,
that is, that this God the Lord, having united and knit both natures in one, and
being God, having also come into this world, in our flesh, he could have no
other means to save us, he could have no other issue out of this world, no
return to his former glory, but by death. And so in this sense, this exitus
mortis, the issue of death, is liberatio per mortem, a deliverance by
death, by the death of this God our Lord, Christ Jesus; and this, St.
Augustine's acceptation of the words, and those many and great persons that have
adhered to him. In all these three lines then, we shall look upon these words,
first as the God of power, the Almighty Father, rescues his servants from the
jaws of death; and then, as the God of mercy, the glorious Son rescues us by
taking upon himself the issue of death; and then (between these two), as the God
of comfort, the Holy Ghost rescues us from all discomfort, by his blessed
impressions before; that what manner of death soever be ordained for us, yet
this exitus mortis shall be introitus in vitam, our issue in death
shall be an entrance into everlasting life. And these three considerations, our
deliverance a morte, in morte, per mortem, from death, in death, and by
death, will abundantly do all the offices of the foundation, of the buttresses,
of the contignation of this our building, that He that is our God is
the God of salvation, because Unto this God the Lord belong the
issues of death. John Donne.
Verse 20. The issues from death. That is, the issue, or
escape, from death, both in the resurrection and in the various perils of our
present life. Thomas Le Blanc.
Verse 20. Issue from death. The English version cannot be
sustained by the Hebrew; for l has never
the force of from, and, therefore, the expression, as Dr. Hammond
observes, must signify the several plagues and judgments inflicted by God on
impenitent enemies--such as drowning in the sea, killing by the sword, etc.;
which were the ways of punishing and destroying the Egyptians and Canaanites.
Thus the two members of the verse are "antithetical" the first speaks of God as
a deliverer, and the second as a punisher; and in this respect the verse
corresponds with the preceding. George Phillips, in "The Psalms... with a
Critical, Exegetical, and Philological Commentary." 1846.
Verse 21. The hairy scalp. That is, even the most fearful
enemies, that with their ghastly visage, deformed with long hair, would strike a
terror into the hearts of beholders. Edward Leigh.
Verse 21. Hairy scalp. It was a practice among some of the
ancient inhabitants of Arabia to allow their hair to grow luxuriantly on the
top of the head, and to shave the head in other parts. Francis
Verse 22. I will bring the enemy. Both the preceding and
following verse prove that this is the sense, and not as many interpreters
supply, my people. Bashan was east of Judaea, and the sea
on the west; so that the meaning is, that God would bring his enemies from every
quarter to be slain by his people. Benjamin Boothroyd.
Verse 23. That thy foot may be dipped, etc. The blood of thy
enemies, shed in such abundance that thy dogs shall lap and drink it, shall be
the sea in which thou shalt pass, and that red without a figure. And,
proportionably shall be the destruction on the enemies of Christ and Christians
in the age of the Messiah. Henry Hammond.
Verse 26-28. This Psalm was sung, it is probable, on the
removal of the ark into the City of David. Numbers 10. It was now that the ark
had rest, and the tribes assembled three times a year at Jerusalem, the place
that God had chosen. The text is a lively description of their worship.
1. Offer a few remarks by way of expounding the passage.
(a) Israel had their lesser congregations in ordinary every
Sabbath day, and their national ones three times a year. Their business in all
was to bless God.
(b) This business was to be carried on by all
Israel, beginning at the fountain head, and proceeding through all its
streams. God had blessed Israel; let Israel bless God.
(c) All the tribes are supposed to be present; four are
mentioned in the name of the whole, as inhabiting the confines of the land.
Their union was a source of joy; they had been divided by civil wars, but now
they are met together.
(d) Those tribes which are named had each something particular
attending it. Little Benjamin (see Judges 21) had nearly been a tribe lacking in
Israel, but now appears with its ruler. Judah had been at war with Benjamin:
Saul was a Benjamite; David was of Judah: yet they happily lost their antipathy
in the worship of God. Zebulun and Naphtali were distant tribes; yet they were
there! dark, too, yet there.
(e) The princes and the people were all together.
(f) They were supposed to be strong, but were reminded that what
they had of strength was of God's commanding. Their union and success, as well
as that degree of righteousness among them which exalted the nation, was of God
They are not so strong, but that they need strengthening, and are directed to
pray as well as praise: Strengthen, O God, that which thou hast
wrought for us.
2. Apply the subject. Two things are here exemplified, namely--diligence and brotherly union; and three
things recommended, namely--united praise; united acknowledgment that, for what they are, they are
indebted to God; and united prayer for future mercies. Each of these affords a rule for us.
(a) The worship of God must be attended with diligence.
There are the princes of Zebulun and Naphtali. They had to travel about two
hundred miles three times a year, thither and back again; that is, twelve
hundred in a year, twenty-four miles a week. Those who neglect the worship of
God for little difficulties show that their heart is not in it, and when they do
attend cannot expect to profit: "they have snuffed at it." Those whose hearts
are in it often reap great advantage. God blessed the Israelites in their
journeys, as well as when there (Ps 84:6): "The rain filleth the pools; "and so
the Christians. There is a peculiar promise to those that seek him early.
(b) The worship of God must be attended to with brotherly
love. All the tribes must go up together. It is a kind law that enjoins
social worship; we need each other to stimulate. "O magnify the Lord with
me, and let us exalt his name together." God has made us so that we shall be
greatly influenced by each other, both to good and evil. It greatly concerns us
to cultivate such a spirit. To this end we must cherish an affectionate
behaviour in our common intercourse--bear, forbear, and forgive; and, whatever
differences we may have, not suffer them to hinder our worship. The tribes, as
we have seen, had their differences; yet they were there. When all Israel met at
Hebron to anoint David king, what should we have said if some had kept away
because others went?
(c) Our business, when assembled, must be to bless
God in our congregations; and a pleasant work this is. Israel had
reasons, and good reasons, and Christians more. Thank him for his unspeakable
gift; bless him for the means of grace, and the hopes of glory. Bless him; he
"healeth all thy diseases, "etc. Psalm 103. This is an employment that fits for
heaven. The tears of a mourner in God's house were supposed to defile his altar.
We may mourn for sin; but a fretful spirit, discontented and unthankful,
defiles God's altar still.
(d) Another part of our business is to unite in acknowledging
that whatever we are, we owe it to God alone; "Thy God hath commanded thy
strength." We possess a degree of strength both individually and socially. Art
thou strong in faith, in hope, in zeal? It is in him thou art strong. Are we
strong as a society? It is God that increaseth us with men like a flock; it is
he that keeps us in union, gives us success, etc.
(e) Another part of our business must be to unite in prayer for
future mercies. We are not so strong, either as individuals or societies, but
that there is room for increase; and this is the proper object of prayer. God
has wrought a great work for us in regeneration. God has wrought much for us as
a church in giving us increase, respect, and room in the earth. Pray that each
may be increased; or, in the words of the text: Strengthen, O God, that which
thou hast wrought for us. Are there none who are strangers to all
this? Andrew Fuller.
Verse 27. Benjamin, Judah, Zebulun, Naphtali. The two royal
1. That of Benjamin, from which the first king sprang;
2. That of Judah, from which the second; and the two learned
tribes, Zebulun and Naphtali. And we may note, that the kingdom of the Messiah
should at length be submitted to by all the potentates and learned men in the
world. Henry Hammond.
Verse 27. Benjamin, Judah, Zebulun, Naphtali. The same
tribes are prominent in the New Testament, as foremost in the battle of the
church against the world. Paul, the "least" of the apostles (1Co 15:8-10), was
by origin Saul of Benjamin (Php 3:5). Christ, "the Lion of the tribe of Judah,
"James and John, the brothers, the other James, Thaddaeus, and Simon, were from
Judah, and the other apostles were from Nephthalim and Zabulon, or Galilee (Mt
4:13). A. R. Fausset.
Verse 27. Their ruler. The prince of that tribe. The
Greek version saith, in a trance; taking the Hebrew Mdr to be of Mdr, though it be not found elsewhere in this form; yet rare words
but once used are sundry times found in this and other Psalms. These things
applied to Christ's times and after are very mystical. Benjamin, the
least, is put here first; so in the heavenly Jerusalem, the first
foundation is a jasper (Re 21:19), which was the last precious stone
in Aaron's breastplate, on which Benjamin's name was graven (Ex
28:10,20-21). In this tribe Paul excelled as a prince of God, though one
of the least of the apostles (1Co 15:8-10), who was converted in a trance
or ecstasy (Ac 9:3-4, etc.); and in ecstasies he and other apostles saw
the mysteries of Christ's kingdom. Henry Ainsworth.
Verse 27. Their council; or, their stone, the
Messiah, that sprang from Judah, Ge 49:24 Ps 118:22. John Gill.
Verse 27-28. There are all the twelve tribes of Israel with
their rulers present, to conduct the ark of God to the hill, in which it
pleaseth him to dwell; for, though all the tribes are not mentioned, these which
are named, include the whole, since Zebulun and Naphtali are the most remote,
and Judah and Benjamin the nearest tribes to Zion. Benjamin was a dwindled
family through the signal depopulation of that tribe, from which it never
entirely recovered. Jud 20:43-48 1Ch 12:29. Edward Garrard Marsh, in "The
Book of Psalms translated into English Verse... with Practical and
Explanatory Notes." 1832.
Verse 28. Thy God hath commanded thy strength. Singularly
appropriate to the occasion for which they were composed are these stimulating
words. The ark of God had during several years been kept in private houses.
David had pitched a tent for its reception, and intended providing a better
shrine; he would deposit the ark in the temporary sanctuary, and he gathers
thirty thousand chosen men of Israel, and with these and with a multitude of the
people he proceeds to the house in which the ark had been kept. The people
can render the service of song, so "David and all the house of Israel
played before the Lord on all manner of instruments made of fir wood, even on
harps, and on psalteries, and on timbrels, and on cornets, and on cymbals" (2Sa
6:5). The breach of Uzzah delayed the restoration of the ark three months; but
David returned to the work, and with gladness, with burnt offerings and peace
offerings, with feasting, dancing, and the sound of a trumpet, he brought in the
ark of the Lord, and set it in its place in the tabernacle he had pitched for
it. David can provide a sacred place for the ark of his God, and his "God
has commanded his strength." Thirty thousand chosen men can attend on
this occasion, and a multitude besides. Then, why should they tarry at home? The
occasion is worthy of their presence, and their "God has commanded their
strength." There are sweet singers and skilful players in Israel, and why should
they be silent. The occasion calls for praise, and their "God has commanded
their strength." There are cattle upon the thousand hills of Canaan, and shall
no sacrifice be brought? The occasion demands oblations, and Israel's "God has
commanded their strength." There is a mountain in Canaan, beautiful for
situation, and rich in historic association. God's ark can be brought to
this mountain, and if it can be, it ought to be, for Israel's God has commanded
Israel's strength. There are twelve tribes in Israel which may unite in bringing
up God's ark, then let none hold back, for their "God has commanded their
strength." Thy strength is thy best--all that is within thee; all that
thou canst do, and be, and become; and all that thou hast--the two mites, if
these be all, and the alabaster box of spikenard, very costly, if this be thy
possession... By that which God is in himself, by that which God is to us, by
law on the heart, and by law oral and written, by the new kingdom of his love,
and by all his benefits, Thy God commands thy strength. He speaks from
the beginning, and from the end of time, from the midst of chaos, and from the
new heavens and new earth, from Bethel and from Gethsemane, from Sinai and from
Calvary, and he saith to us all, "My son, give me thine heart, " consecrate to
me thy best, and devote to me thy strength. Samuel Martin.
Verse 30. Rebuke the wild beasts of the reeds. This is our
marginal version, which is the proper one. Most modern critics consider that the
lion is here intended, which frequently makes its den among reeds or brush wood.
Innumerable lions wander about among the reeds and copses, on the borders of the
rivers of Mesopotamia. The river Jordan was infested with them (Jer 4:7 49:19).
Hence, the wild beasts of the reed may signify the Syrian kings, who often
contended with David. Benjamin Boothroyd.
Verse 30. The idolatrous king of Egypt is here enigmatically
represented as dwelling, like the crocodile, among the reeds of the Nile; and
with him are introduced the bulls and calves, who were the gods of
the people of Egypt, before whom they were ever dancing in their superstitious
revels. "Quell these insults upon thy majesty, nor put down only the
superstition of Egypt, but all their pomp of war also, that the Gentiles may be
converted unto thee, and the idols be utterly abolished." Edward Garrard
Verse 30. When the enemies of God rise up against his
church, it is time for the church to fall down to God, to implore his aid
against those enemies. Holy prayers are more powerful than profane swords.
Thomas Wall, in "A Comment on the Times." 1657.
Verse 30. These words contain, first, a declaration of God's
enemies; secondly, an imprecation against those enemies. The enemies are
marshalled into four ranks.
1. A company of spearmen, or (as some translations read it) the
beast of the reeds.
2. The multitude of the bulls.
3. The calves of the people.
4. The men that delight in war.
The imprecation is also twofold; the first more gentle; it is
but rebuke the spearmen; and that with limitation too--till
they submit themselves with pieces of silver. For they that will not, but
delight in war, more severely deal with such: Scatter them; Scatter the men
that delight in war.... The church of God never wanted enemies, never will.
"There is no peace to the wicked, "saith God: there shall be no peace to the
godly, say the wicked. The wicked shall have no peace which God can give; the
godly shall have no peace which the wicked can take away. Thomas Wall.
4. Ambition or pride.
Upon which these four beasts in the text do act their enmity
against the church; scrupulosity sets forth unto us the beast of the reeds;
envy, the bulls; ignorance, the calves; and pride, the men that delight in
war. Thomas Wall.
This instance of spiritualising may act rather as a beacon than
as an example. The author was an able divine, but in this sermon gives more play
to his imagination than his common sense.
Verse 31. Ethiopia. It is a matter of fact, familiar to the
learned reader, that the names Ethiopia, and "Ethiopians, " are
frequently substituted in our English version of the Old Testament, where the
Hebrew preserves the proper name, "Cush." And the name, "Cush, "when so applied
in Scripture, belongs uniformly not to the African, but to the Asiatic,
Ethiopia, or Arabia. Charles Forster, in "The Historical Geography of
Verse 33. And that a mighty voice; or a voice of
strength; a strong and powerful voice, such as the gospel is, when
accompanied with the power and Spirit of God. It is a soul shaking and awakening
voice; it is a heart melting and a heart breaking one; it is a quickening and an
enlightening voice; it quickens dead sinners, gives life unto them, and the
entrance of it gives light to dark minds; it is a soul charming and alluring
one; it draws to Christ, engages the affections to him, and fills with
unspeakable delight and pleasure. John Gill.
Verse 33. To him that rideth upon the heavens of heavens. He
who manages the heavens, directing their course and influence. He formed every
orb, ascertained its motion, proportioned its solid contents to the orbit in
which it was to revolve, and to the other bodies of the same system; and as an
able rider manages his horse, so does God the sun, moon, planets, and all the
host of heaven. W. Greenfield, in Comprehensive Bible.
Verse 33. The praises of the church are sung to him, who,
after his sufferings here below, reascended to take possession of his ancient
throne, high above all heavens; who, from thence, speaketh to the world by his
glorious gospel, mighty and powerful, as thunder, in its effects upon the hearts
of men (see Psalm 29 throughout). The power of Christ's voice, when he was on
earth, appeared by the effects which followed, when he said, "Young man, arise:"
"Lazarus, come forth:" "Peace, be still; "and it will yet further appear, when
"all that are in the graves shall hear the voice of the Son of man, and come
forth." George Horne.
Verse 34. His strength is in the clouds. This refers to the
phenomena of thunder and lightning; for all nations have observed that the
electric fluid is an irresistible agent--destroying life, tearing towers and
castles to pieces, rending the strongest oaks, and cleaving the most solid
rocks; and the most enlightened nations have justly considered it as an especial
manifestation of the power and sovereignty of God. W. Greenfield, in
HINTS TO THE VILLAGE PREACHER
First. The church of God ever had, and will have, enemies and haters; for against these doth the psalmist arm
himself and the church with this prayer.
Secondly. The church's enemies are God's enemies; they that hate the church, hate God. Thine
enemies, them that hate thee.
Thirdly. God sometimes seems to sleep or lie still, and let these enemies and haters do what they will
for a season, This, also, is implied: he to whom we say, Arise is either asleep or lies still.
Fourthly. There is a time when God will arise.
Fifthly. God's rising time is the enemies' scattering time, his hater's flying time.
Sixthly. It is the duty of God's people to pray him up when he seems to be down, and to exalt him
in their praises when he doth arise to their rescue and redemption; for these words are both a
prayer and a triumph as they are used both by Moses and David. Thomas Case, in a Fast Sermon, preached before the House of
Commons, entitled, "God's Rising, his Enemies' Scattering." 1644.
Verses 1-3. Prayer for the Second Advent. A. Macaul.
1. The name that inspires the song: Jah.
(a) Self existent.
2. The song inspired by that name.
(a) Of exultation.
(b) Of confidence.
(c) Of joy. G. R.
Verse 5. The claims of widows and orphans upon the church of
God, from God's relation to them and his indwelling in the church.
Verse 6. Comparison of churches to families. See extract
from Dr. Gill.
1. Two curable evils: "solitary", "bound with chains."
2. Two rich blessings: "set in families, ""bringeth out."
3. One monster evil, and its miserable consequences.
1. God has his seasons for delivering his people from their troubles: When thou, etc.
2. His deliverance is complete: The earth shook, etc.; all things gave way before him.
3. The deliverance is greater for the delay.
(a) It is so in itself.
(b) It is more prized: as in the case of Job, Abraham, Israel at
the Red Sea, Daniel, his three companions, etc. G. R.
1. The presence of God in his church.
(a) His preeminence: "before."
(b) As covenant God of Israel.
(c) As active and making active.
(d) His rule within: they follow.
(e) His design without: marching for war.
2. The blessed
(a) The most stolid shake.
(b) The lofty bow.
(c) Difficulties removed: "Sinai."
(d) Blessings plenteous.
(e) Church revived.
1. God's mercy compared to a shower.
(a) It is direct from heaven; not through priests.
(b) It is pure and unmixed.
(c) No one has a monopoly of it.
(d) There is no substitute for it.
(e) It is sovereignly dispensed, as to (1) time; (2) place; (3)
manner; and (4) measure.
(f) It works efficiently. Isa 55:10.
(g) Prayer can get it.
2. There are seasons when these showers fall.
(a) In the house of God.
(b) In the means of grace.
(c) In prayer.
(d) In affliction.
(e) When saints are weary (1) through working; (2) through
sickness; (3) through non success.
(f) By the Holy Spirit refreshing the heart.
3. These showers are meant to "confirm God's people."
4. They are wanted now.
1. The church is God's inheritance.
2. Though his inheritance, at times it may be
3. When weary, it will be refreshed by him. G. R.
Verse 10. (second clause). Special goodness, for a
special people, specially prepared.
Verse 10. (second clause). It is spoken in reference
to the poor, because,
1. They are the larger mass of mankind; and, whatever pride may think, in the eye of reason, policy, and
revelation, by far the most important, useful, and necessary part.
2. They would be more peculiarly affected by deficiency.
3. To encourage those in humble and trying life to depend upon him.
4. To enforce our attention to them from the divine example. W. Jay.
Verse 11. The divinity of the gospel; the divers ways and
agents for its publication.
1. The word given: "The Lord." etc.
2. The word proclaimed: "Great, "etc.
3. The word obeyed: "Kings, "etc. Thus it was in Old Testament times, when to Joshua, to Gideon, to David,
etc., the Lord gave the word, and it ran through the hosts, and "kings of armies, "etc. Thus it was in
apostolic times, when the word of reconciliation was given. Thus it is still, and will be more signally
than ever hereafter. G. R.
Verse 12. (last clause). The church in redemption as
a spouse tarrying at home; her home duties; the spoil of her Lord's glorious and
finished work, and her dividing it.
1. The contrast.
(a) Instead of humiliation, exaltation.
(b) Instead of pollution, purity.
(c) Instead of inertness, activity.
(d) Instead of deformity, beauty.
2. Its application.
(a) To penitence and pardon.
(b) To depravity and regeneration.
(c) To affliction and recovery.
(d) To desertion and consolation.
(e) To death and glory. G. R.
1. Where earth's greatest battles are fought. "Scattered, ""in it, "i.e., in Zion. "There
brake he, "etc.
2. By whom? The Almighty.
3. When? In answer to his people's faith and prayer.
(a) Without noise, gently: as the fall of snow.
(b) Without human aid: as untrodden snow.
(c) Without violence: "All bloodless lay the untrodden snow."
1. The superiority of the hill of Zion.
(a) In fertility, to the hill of Bashan; to earthly pleasures.
(b) In glory, to other hills; to human heights of learning and
2. The reason of that superiority.
(a) The place of God's choice.
(b) Of his delight
(c) Of his abode.
(d) Of his continuance for ever. G. R.
1. The church the dwelling place of God.
(a) Elected of old.
(b) Favoured for ever.
(c) Affording rest, etc., as a home for God.
(d) Receiving honour, etc., for herself.
2. The church,
therefore, envied by others.
(a) They feel their own greatness outdone.
(b) They leap with rage.
(c) They are unreasonable in so doing.
1. The comparison between Zion and Sinai.
(a) The same Lord is there: "The Lord is among, "etc.
(b) The same attendants: "The chariots," etc.
2. The contrast.
(a) God descended at Sinai, ascended from near Zion.
(b) Put a yoke upon them at Sinai, leads captivity captive at
(c) At Sinai demanded obedience, in Zion bestows gifts.
(d) In Sinai spoke terror, in Zion receives gifts for the
(e) In Sinai appeared for a short season, in Zion dwells for
ever. G. R.
1. Christ's ascension.
2. His victories.
3. The gifts he received for men; and
4. The great end for which he bestows them. John
Verse 18. That the Lord God might dwell among them. It is
ground for devout wonder that God should dwell among men, when we contemplate
his immensity, loftiness, independence, holiness, and sovereignty;
yet he does so--
1. In the coming of Christ into the world.
2. In the residence of his Spirit in the heart.
3. In the presence of God in his churches.
--William Staughton, D.D. 1770-1829.
1. The load of benefits.
2. The load of obligation.
3. The load of praise due in return.
1. Salvation is not to be forgotten in the midst of daily mercies.
2. Daily mercies are not to be forgotten in the enjoyment of salvation. G. R.
Verse 20. Death in God's hand.
1. Escapes from it.
2. Entrances to it.
3. The exit out of it beyond.
4. The gate which, when closed, shuts us in it for ever.
1. What God has been to his people.
(a) Their salvation.
(b) Their portion: "Our God."
2. What he will be: With them.
(a) Until death.
(b) In death.
(c) After death. G. R.
Verse 21. The power, pride, wisdom, and very life of evil,
to be conquered by God.
1. Where his people may be driven.
2. The certainty of their return.
3. The reasons for being assured of this.
Verse 24. The allowable procession in the sanctuary. The
marshalled order of doctrine, the holy walk of believers, the banners of joy,
the music of devotions, the shouts to the King.
Verse 25. (last clause). Work for holy women in the
1. The variety of song.
(a) The royal tribe of Benjamin in the time of Saul.
(b) The princely tribe of Judah, as David was prince regent in
the time of Saul.
(c) The literary tribe of Zebulun: "Out of Zebulun" they that
handle the pen of the writer.
(d) The eloquent tribe: "Naphtali giveth goodly words."
harmony of song. Let all unite in praising the Lord, the fountain of Israel.
"Ten thousand thousand are their tongues, "etc. G. R.
1. Hindrances to the progress of divine truth.
(a) Idolatry. Worship of the crocodile--beasts of the
reeds, (LXX) --of bulls and calves, as in Egypt.
2. The means for their removal. Prayer and the divine
rebuke. Scatter thou, etc.
3. The consequences of this removal; Ps
1. Consider God's jealousy towards his people for his holiness in the three "holy places."
(a) In the outer court of profession.
(b) In the holy place of our priesthood.
(c) In the holy of holies with his Son.
2. Consider his
terribleness to his foes, as inferred from those "holy places."
Verse 35. Blessed be God. A brief, but very suggestive text.