1. was--Greek, "came to pass"; "began to
silence in heaven about . . . half an hour--The last seal having been broken open, the book of God's eternal plan of redemption is opened for the Lamb to read to the blessed ones in heaven. The half hour's silence contrasts with the previous jubilant songs of the great multitude, taken up by the angels (Revelation 7:9-11). It is the solemn introduction to the employments and enjoyments of the eternal Sabbath-rest of the people of God, commencing with the Lamb's reading the book heretofore sealed up, and which we cannot know till then. In Revelation 10:4, similarly at the eve of the sounding of the seventh trumpet, when the seven thunders uttered their voices, John is forbidden to write them. The seventh trumpet (Revelation 11:15-19) winds up God's vast plan of providence and grace in redemption, just as the seventh seal brings it to the same consummation. So also the seventh vial, Revelation 16:17. Not that the seven seals, the seven trumpets, and the seven vials, though parallel, are repetitions. They each trace the course of divine action up to the grand consummation in which they all meet, under a different aspect. Thunders, lightnings, an earthquake, and voices close the seven thunders and the seven seals alike (compare Revelation 8:5, with Revelation 11:19). Compare at the seventh vial, the voices, thunders, lightnings, and earthquake, Revelation 16:18. The half-hour silence is the brief pause GIVEN TO JOHN between the preceding vision and the following one, implying, on the one hand, the solemn introduction to the eternal sabbatism which is to follow the seventh seal; and, on the other, the silence which continued during the incense-accompanied prayers which usher in the first of the seven trumpets (Revelation 8:3-5). In the Jewish temple, musical instruments and singing resounded during the whole time of the offering of the sacrifices, which formed the first part of the service. But at the offering of incense, solemn silence was kept ("My soul waiteth upon God," Psalms 62:1; "is silent," Margin; Psalms 65:1, Margin), the people praying secretly all the time. The half-hour stillness implies, too, the earnest adoring expectation with which the blessed spirits and the angels await the succeeding unfolding of God's judgments. A short space is implied; for even an hour is so used (Revelation 17:12, 18:10,19).
2. the seven angels--Compare the apocryphal Tobit 12:15, "I am
Raphael, one of the seven holy angels which present the prayers of the saints,
and which go in and out before the glory of the Holy One." Compare Luke
1:19, "I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God."
seven trumpets--These come in during the time while the martyrs rest until their fellow servants also, that should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled; for it is the inhabiters of the earth on whom the judgments fall, on whom also the martyrs prayed that they should fall (Revelation 6:10). All the ungodly, and not merely some one portion of them, are meant, all the opponents and obstacles in the way of the kingdom of Christ and His saints, as is proved by Revelation 11:15,18, end, at the close of the seven trumpets. The Revelation becomes more special only as it advances farther (Revelation 13:1-18, 16:10, 17:18). By the seven trumpets the world kingdoms are overturned to make way for Christ's universal kingdom. The first four are connected together; and the last three, which alone have Woe, woe, woe (Revelation 8:7-13).
3. another angel--not Christ, as many think; for He, in Revelation, is
always designated by one of His proper titles; though, doubtless, He is the only
true High Priest, the Angel of the Covenant, standing before the golden altar of
incense, and there, as Mediator, offering up His people's prayers, rendered
acceptable before God through the incense of His merit. Here the angel acts
merely as a ministering spirit (Hebrews
1:4), just as the twenty-four elders have vials full of odors, or
incense, which are the prayers of saints (Revelation
5:8), and which they present before the Lamb. How precisely their ministry,
in perfuming the prayers of the saints and offering them on the altar of
incense, is exercised, we know not, but we do know they are not to be prayed TO.
If we send an offering of tribute to the king, the king's messenger is not
allowed to appropriate what is due to the king alone.
there was given unto him--The angel does not provide the incense; it is given to him by Christ, whose meritorious obedience and death are the incense, rendering the saints' prayers well pleasing to God. It is not the saints who give the angel the incense; nor are their prayers identified with the incense; nor do they offer their prayers to him. Christ alone is the Mediator through whom, and to whom, prayer is to be offered.
offer it with the prayers--rather as Greek, "give it TO the prayers," so rendering them efficacious as a sweet-smelling savor to God. Christ's merits alone can thus incense our prayers, though the angelic ministry be employed to attach this incense to the prayers. The saints' praying on earth, and the angel's incensing in heaven, are simultaneous.
all saints--The prayers both of the saints in the heavenly rest, and of those militant on earth. The martyrs' cry is the foremost, and brings down the ensuing judgments.
golden altar--antitype to the earthly.
4. the smoke . . . which came with the prayers . . . ascended up--rather, "the smoke of the incense FOR (or 'given TO': 'given' being understood from Revelation 8:3) the prayers of the saints ascended up, out of the angel's hand, in the presence of Gods" The angel merely burns the incense given him by Christ the High Priest, so that its smoke blends with the ascending prayers of the saints. The saints themselves are priests; and the angels in this priestly ministration are but their fellow servants (Revelation 19:10).
5. cast it into the earth--that is, unto the earth: the hot
coals off the altar cast on the earth, symbolize God's fiery judgments about to
descend on the Church's foes in answer to the saints' incense-perfumed prayers
which have just ascended before God, and those of the martyrs. How marvellous
the power of the saints' prayers!
there were--"there took place," or "ensued."
voices, and thunderings, and lightnings--B places the "voices" after "thunderings." A places it after "lightnings."
6. sound--blow the trumpets.
7. The common feature of the first four trumpets is, the judgments
under them affect natural objects, the accessories of life, the earth,
trees, grass, the sea, rivers, fountains, the light of the sun, moon, and stars.
The last three, the woe-trumpets (Revelation
8:13), affect men's life with pain, death, and hell. The language is
evidently drawn from the plagues of Egypt, five or six out of the ten exactly
corresponding: the hail, the fire (Exodus
9:24), the WATER turned to blood (Exodus
7:19), the darkness (Exodus
10:21), the locusts (Exodus
10:12), and perhaps the death (Revelation
9:18). Judicial retribution in kind characterizes the inflictions of the
first four, those elements which had been abused punishing their abusers.
mingled with--A, B, and Vulgate read, Greek, ". . . IN blood." So in the case of the second and third vials (Revelation 16:3,4).
upon the earth--Greek, "unto the earth." A, B, Vulgate, and Syriac add, "And the third of the earth was burnt up." So under the third trumpet, the third of the rivers is affected: also, under the sixth trumpet, the third part of men are killed. In Zechariah 13:8,9 this tripartite division appears, but the proportions reversed, two parts killed, only a third preserved. Here, vice versa, two-thirds escape, one-third is smitten. The fire was the predominant element.
all green grass--no longer a third, but all is burnt up.
8. as it were--not literally a mountain: a mountain-like burning mass.
There is a plain allusion to Jeremiah
third part of the sea became blood--In the parallel second vial, the whole sea (not merely a third) becomes blood. The overthrow of Jericho, the type of the Antichristian Babylon, after which Israel, under Joshua (the same name as Jesus), victoriously took possession of Canaan, the type of Christ's and His people's kingdom, is perhaps alluded to in the SEVEN trumpets, which end in the overthrow of all Christ's foes, and the setting up of His kingdom. On the seventh day, at the seventh time, when the seven priests blew the seven ram's horn trumpets, the people shouted, and the walls fell flat: and then ensued the blood-shedding of the foe. A mountain-like fiery mass would not naturally change water into blood; nor would the third part of ships be thereby destroyed.
9. The symbolical interpreters take the ships here to be churches. For the Greek here for ships is not the common one, but that used in the Gospels of the apostolic vessel in which Christ taught: and the first churches were in the shape of an inverted ship: and the Greek for destroyed is also used of heretical corruptings (1 Timothy 6:5).
10. a lamp--a torch.
11. The symbolizers interpret the star fallen from heaven as a chief minister (ARIUS, according to BULLINGER, BENGEL, and others; or some future false teacher, if, as is more likely, the event be still future) falling from his high place in the Church, and instead of shining with heavenly light as a star, becoming a torch lit with earthly fire and smouldering with smoke. And "wormwood," though medicinal in some cases, if used as ordinary water would not only be disagreeable to the taste, but also fatal to life: so "heretical wormwood changes the sweet Siloas of Scripture into deadly Marahs" [WORDSWORTH]. Contrast the converse change of bitter Marah water into sweet, Exodus 15:23. ALFORD gives as an illustration in a physical point of view, the conversion of water into firewater or ardent spirits, which may yet go on to destroy even as many as a third of the ungodly in the latter days.
12. third part--not a total obscuration as in the sixth seal (Revelation
6:12,13). This partial obscuration, therefore, comes between the
prayers of the martyrs under the fifth seal, and the last overwhelming judgments
on the ungodly under the sixth seal, at the eve of Christ's coming.
the night likewise--withdrew a third part of the light which the bright Eastern moon and stars ordinarily afford.
13. an angel--A, B, Vulgate, Syriac, and Coptic read for
"angel," which is supported by none of the oldest manuscripts,
"an eagle": the symbol of judgment descending fatally from on high;
the king of birds pouncing on the prey. Compare this fourth trumpet and the
flying eagle with the fourth seal introduced by the fourth living
creature, "like a flying eagle," Revelation
the aspect of Jesus as presented by the fourth Evangelist. John is
compared in the cherubim (according to the primitive interpretation) to a flying
eagle: Christ's divine majesty in this similitude is set forth in the
Gospel according to John, His judicial visitations in the Revelation of
John. Contrast "another angel," or messenger, with "the
everlasting Gospel," Revelation
through the midst of heaven--Greek, "in the mid-heaven," that is, in the part of the sky where the sun reaches the meridian: in such a position as that the eagle is an object conspicuous to all.
the inhabiters of the earth--the ungodly, the "men of the world," whose "portion is in this life," upon whom the martyrs had prayed that their blood might be avenged (Revelation 6:10). Not that they sought personal revenge, but their zeal was for the honor of God against the foes of God and His Church.
the other--Greek, "the remaining voices."