Ps 127:1-5. The theme of this Psalm, that human enterprises only succeed by the divine blessing, was probably associated with the building of the temple by Solomon, its author. It may have been adopted in this view, as suited to this series especially, as appropriately expressing the sentiments of God's worshippers in relation to the erection of the second temple.
1, 2. suggest the view of the theme given.
2. so he giveth his beloved sleep--that is, His providential care gives sleep which no efforts of ours can otherwise procure, and this is a reason for trust as to other things (compare Mt 6:26-32).
3-5. Posterity is often represented as a blessing from God (Ge 30:2, 18; 1Sa 1:19, 20). Children are represented as the defenders (arrows) of their parents in war, and in litigation.
5. adversaries in the gate--or place of public business (compare Job 5:4; Ps 69:12).