10:1 Verily, 1 verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber.
(1) Seeing that by Christ alone we have access to
the Father, there are no true shepherds other than those who come to Christ
themselves and bring others there also, neither is any to be thought to be in
the true sheepfold but those who are gathered to Christ.
10:3 To him the a
porter openeth; and the sheep hear his voice: and he calleth his own sheep by
name, and leadeth them out.
(a) In those days they used to have a servant
always sitting at the door, and therefore he speaks after the manner of those
This b parable spake Jesus unto them:
but they understood not what things they were which he spake unto them.
(b) This word "parable", which the
evangelist uses here, signifies a hidden type of speech, when words are not
used with their natural meaning, but are used to signify another thing to us.
All that c ever came before me are
thieves and robbers: but the sheep did not hear them.
(2) It does not matter how many false teachers
there have been, neither how old they have been.
(c) These terms must be applied to the matter he
speaks of. And therefore when he calls himself the door, he calls all those
thieves and robbers who take upon themselves this name of "door",
which none of the prophets can do, for they showed the sheep that Christ was
10:9 3 I am
the door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall d
go in and out, and find pasture.
(3) Only Christ is the true Pastor, and those
only are the true Church who acknowledge him to properly be their only Pastor:
opposite to him are thieves who do not feed the sheep, but kill them: and
hirelings also, who forsake the flock in time of danger, because they feed it
only for their own profit and gains.
(d) That is, will live safely, as the Jews used
to speak (see (Deuteronomy
26:6-10)), and yet there is a special reference to the shepherd's
As the Father e knoweth me, even so know
I the Father: and I lay down my life for the sheep.
(e) Loves me, allows me.
And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and
they shall hear my voice; and there shall be f
one fold, [and] one shepherd.
(4) The calling of the Gentiles.
(f) The distinguishing mark of the Christian
Church throughout all the world, is that it has only one head, that is Christ,
the only keeper, and only shepherd of it.
Therefore doth my Father love me, because g
I lay down my life, that I might take it again.
(5) Christ is by the decree of the Father the
only true shepherd of the true Church, for he willingly gave his life for his
sheep, and by his own power rose again to life.
(g) He uses the present tense because Christ's
whole life was as it were a perpetual death.
There was a division therefore again among the Jews for these sayings.
(6) The gospel uncovers hypocrisy, and therefore
the world must necessarily rage when the gospel comes forth.
And it was at Jerusalem the feast of the h
dedication, and it was winter.
(h) The feast of the dedication was instituted by
Judas Maccabeus and his brethren after the restoring of God's true religion,
by the casting out of Antiochus' garrison.
And Jesus walked in the temple in Solomon's porch.
(7) The unbelievers and proud men accuse the
gospel of darkness, and this very darkness is indeed within themselves.
Jesus answered them, I told you, and ye believed not: the works that I do in my
Father's name, they bear witness of me.
(8) The doctrine of the gospel is proved from
heaven by two witnesses: both by the purity of the doctrine and by miracles.
But ye believe not, i because ye are not
of my sheep, as I said unto you.
(9) It is no marvel that only a few believe,
seeing that all men are by nature untamed beasts: yet nonetheless God has his
own, which he turns into sheep, and commits them unto his Son, and preserves
them against the cruelty of all wild beasts.
(i) He gives a reason why they do not believe,
that is, because they are not his sheep.
10 Then the Jews took up stones again to
(10) Christ proves his dignity by divine works.
10:32 Jesus answered them, Many good works have I
shewed you from my k Father; for which
of those works do ye stone me?
(k) Through my Father's authority and power.
If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot
be l broken;
(l) Void and of no effect.
11 Therefore they sought again to take
him: but he escaped out of their hand,
(11) Christ flees danger, not because of
mistrust, nor for fear of death, nor that he would be lazy, but to gather a
Church in another place.