1:1 Now there was a certain man of a Ramathaimzophim, of mount Ephraim, and his name [was] Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephrathite:
The Argument - As God had ordained in (Deuteronomy
17:14), that when the Israelites entered the land of Canaan, he would
appoint a king for them: so here in the first book of Samuel the state of the
people under their first king Saul is declared. Not content with the order
that God had temporarily appointed for the government of his Church, they
demanded a king, so that they might be as other nations. As well they thought
they would be better off, not because they could serve God better by it, but
because they would be under the safeguard of him who represented Jesus Christ
the true deliverer. Therefore God gave them a tyrant and a hypocrite to rule
over them, so that they might learn that a king is not sufficient to defend
them, unless God by his power preserves and keeps them. Therefore he punishes
the ingratitude of his people, and sends them continual wars both at home and
abroad. Also, because Saul, whom God had given to the honour of a king out of
nothing, did not acknowledge God's mercy to him, but rather disobeyed the
word of God and was not zealous of his glory, he was removed from his estate
by God, and David the true figure of Messiah was placed in his stead. His
patience, modesty, constancy, persecution by open enemies, feigned friends,
and deceitful flatterers, is left to the Church and to every member of it, as
a pattern and example of their state and calling.
(a) There were two Ramatus, so that in this city
in mount Ephraim were Zophim, that is, the learned men and prophets.
1:3 And this man went up
out of his city yearly to worship and to sacrifice unto the LORD of hosts in b
Shiloh. And the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, the priests of the LORD,
(b) For the ark was there at that time.
1:5 But unto Hannah he
gave a worthy c portion; for he loved
Hannah: but the LORD had shut up her womb.
(c) Some read, a portion with a hearty cheer.
Then said Elkanah her husband to her, Hannah, why weepest thou? and why eatest
thou not? and why is thy heart grieved? [am] not I better to thee than ten d
(d) Let this comfort you, that I love you no less
than if you had many children.
1:9 So Hannah rose up after they had eaten in
Shiloh, and after they had drunk. Now Eli the priest sat upon a seat by a post
of the e temple of the LORD.
(e) That is of the house where the ark was.
And she said, Let thine handmaid find f
grace in thy sight. So the woman went her way, and did eat, and her countenance
was no more [sad].
(f) That is, pray to the Lord for me.
1:19 And they rose up in the morning early, and
worshipped before the LORD, and returned, and came to their house to Ramah: and
Elkanah knew Hannah his wife; and the LORD g
(g) According to her petition.
1:21 And the man h
Elkanah, and all his house, went up to offer unto the LORD the yearly sacrifice,
and his vow.
(h) This Elkanah was a Levite, (1 Chronicles
6:27), and as some write once a year they were accustomed to appear before
the Lord with their families.
1:23 And Elkanah her
husband said unto her, Do what seemeth thee good; tarry until thou have weaned
him; only the LORD establish his i word.
So the woman abode, and gave her son suck until she weaned him.
(i) Because her prayer took effect, therefore it
was called the Lord's promise.
And she said, Oh my lord, [as] thy k
soul liveth, my lord, I [am] the woman that stood by thee here, praying unto the
(k) That is, most certainly.
1:28 Therefore also I
have lent him to the LORD; as long as he liveth he shall be lent to the LORD.
And he l worshipped the LORD there.
(l) Meaning, Eli gave thanks to God for her.