Behold, I will send and take all the families of the north, saith the LORD, and Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon, my servant, and will bring them against this land, and against the inhabitants thereof, and against all these nations round about, and will utterly destroy them, and make them an astonishment, and an hissing, and perpetual desolations.
Nebuchadnezzar — In this work shall be my servant; though you will not be my servants in obeying my commands.
 Moreover I will take from them the voice of mirth, and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones, and the light of the candle.
Moreover — Nay, I will not only deprive you of your mirth, but of those things that are necessary for you, as necessary as bread and light, the millstone shall not move, you shall not have the light so much as of a candle.
 And it shall come to pass, when seventy years are accomplished, that I will punish the king of Babylon, and that nation, saith the LORD, for their iniquity, and the land of the Chaldeans, and will make it perpetual desolations.
Accomplished — Counted from the time that the Jews were carried away in the time of Jeconiah or Jehoiakim, 2 Kings 24:15,16.
Desolations — This was fulfilled by Darius, the king of Persia, Daniel 4:31, of these seventy Nebuchadnezzar reigned thirty six, 2 Kings 25:27. Evil-merodach thirty two, and Belshazzar at least two, Daniel 8:1.
 For thus saith the LORD God of Israel unto me; Take the wine cup of this fury at my hand, and cause all the nations, to whom I send thee, to drink it.
The cup — God made Jeremiah to see the appearance of such a cup in a vision.
 And all the mingled people, and all the kings of the land of Uz, and all the kings of the land of the Philistines, and Ashkelon, and Azzah, and Ekron, and the remnant of Ashdod,
Of Uz — Some part of Arabia Petraea, near to Idumaea.
Of the Philistines — Uzzah, Ekron, Ashdod, and Askelon, were four of their cities, the fifth which was Gath is not here named. For before this time it was destroyed, either by Psammeticus, father to Pharaoh Necho, or by Tartan, captain general to Sargon, king of Assyria, of whom read, Isaiah 20:1, that he took Ashdod, which may be the reason that here mention is made of no more than the remnant of Ashdod.
 And all the kings of Tyrus, and all the kings of Zidon, and the kings of the isles which are beyond the sea,
Beyond the sea — Probably those parts of Syria that coasted upon the mid-land sea.
 Dedan, and Tema, and Buz, and all that are in the utmost corners,
Buz — Buz was one of the posterity of Nahor, Genesis 22:21. These were people mixed with the Saracens or Arabians.
 And all the kings of Zimri, and all the kings of Elam, and all the kings of the Medes,
Zimri — Those descended from Zimran, Abraham's son by Keturah, Genesis 25:2.
Elam — The Persians.
The Medes — The Medes came from Madai the son of Japhet.
 And all the kings of the north, far and near, one with another, and all the kingdoms of the world, which are upon the face of the earth: and the king of Sheshach shall drink after them.
The north — All under the government of the Chaldeans.
Of Sheshach — And the king of Babylon, who was last of all to drink of this cup of the Lord's fury.
 Howl, ye shepherds, and cry; and wallow yourselves in the ashes, ye principal of the flock: for the days of your slaughter and of your dispersions are accomplished; and ye shall fall like a pleasant vessel.
Shepherds — Shepherds and the principal of the flock, in this place mean civil rulers.
A pleasant vessel — Like a crystal glass, or some delicate vessel, which breaks in pieces and cannot again be set together.
 He hath forsaken his covert, as the lion: for their land is desolate because of the fierceness of the oppressor, and because of his fierce anger.
Because — The effects of this rising up of God out of his covert is the desolation of the land through the fierceness of the enemy, caused by the fierce anger of God.