1. declare--rather, explore; the result of my exploring is this, that "the righteous, &c., are in the hand of God. No man knoweth either the love or hatred (of God to them) by all that is before them," that is, by what is outwardly seen in His present dealings (Ecclesiastes 8:14,17). However, from the sense of the same words, in Ecclesiastes 9:6, "love and hatred" seem to be the feelings of the wicked towards the righteous, whereby they caused to the latter comfort or sorrow. Translate: "Even the love and hatred" (exhibited towards the righteous, are in God's hand) (Psalms 76:10, Proverbs 16:7). "No man knoweth all that is before them."
2. All things . . . alike--not universally; but as to death.
9:2-10 are made by HOLDEN the objection of a skeptical sensualist. However,
they may be explained as Solomon's language. He repeats the sentiment already
implied in Ecclesiastes
one event--not eternally; but death is common to all.
sacrificeth--alike to. Josiah who sacrificed to God, and to Ahab who made sacrifice to Him cease.
sweareth--rashly and falsely.
3. Translate, "There is an evil above all (evils) that are
done," &c., namely, that not only "there is one event to
all," but "also the heart of the sons of men" makes this fact a
reason for "madly" persisting in "evil while they live, and after
that," &c., sin is "madness."
the dead--(Proverbs 2:18, 9:18).
4. For--rather, "Nevertheless." English Version
rightly reads as the Margin, Hebrew, "that is joined," instead
of the text, "who is to be chosen?"
hope--not of mere temporal good (Job 14:7); but of yet repenting and being saved.
dog--metaphor for the vilest persons (1 Samuel 24:14).
lion--the noblest of animals (Proverbs 30:30).
better--as to hope of salvation; the noblest who die unconverted have no hope; the vilest, so long as they have life, have hope.
5. know that they shall die--and may thereby be led "so to number
their days, that they may apply their hearts to wisdom" (Ecclesiastes
dead know not anything--that is so far as their bodily senses and worldly affairs are concerned (Job 14:21, Isaiah 63:16); also, they know no door of repentance open to them, such as is to all on earth.
neither . . . reward--no advantage from their worldly labors (Ecclesiastes 2:18-22, 4:9).
memory--not of the righteous (Psalms 112:6, Malachi 3:16), but the wicked, who with all the pains to perpetuate their names (Psalms 49:11) are soon "forgotten" (Ecclesiastes 8:10).
6. love, and . . . hatred, &c.--(referring to Ecclesiastes
9:1; Not that these cease in a future world absolutely (Ezekiel
22:11); but as the end of this verse shows, relatively to persons and things
in this world. Man's love and hatred can no longer be exercised for good or evil
in the same way as here; but the fruits of them remain. What he is at death he
remains for ever. "Envy," too, marks the wicked as referred to, since
it was therewith that they
portion--Their "portion" was "in this life" (Psalms 17:14), that they now "cannot have any more."
7. Addressed to the "righteous wise," spoken of in Ecclesiastes 9:1. Being "in the hand of God," who now accepteth "thy works" in His service, as He has previously accepted thy person (Genesis 4:4), thou mayest "eat . . . with a cheerful (not sensually 'merry') heart" (Ecclesiastes 3:13, 5:18, Acts 2:46).
8. white--in token of joy (Isaiah
61:3). Solomon was clad in white (JOSEPHUS, Antiquities,
8:7,3); hence his attire is compared to the "lilies" (Matthew
6:29), typical of the spotless righteousness of Jesus Christ, which the
redeemed shall wear (Revelation
ointment--(Psalms 23:5), opposed to a gloomy exterior (2 Samuel 14:2, Psalms 45:7, Matthew 6:17); typical, also (Ecclesiastes 7:1, Solomon 1:3).
9. wife . . . lovest--godly and true love, opposed to the "snares" of the "thousand" concubines (Ecclesiastes 7:26,28), "among" whom Solomon could not find the true love which joins one man to one woman (Proverbs 5:15,18,19, 18:22, 19:14).
10. Whatsoever--namely, in the service of God. This and last verse
plainly are the language of Solomon, not of a skeptic, as HOLDEN would explain
hand, &c.--(Leviticus 12:8, Margin; 1 Samuel 10:7, Margin).
thy might--diligence (Deuteronomy 6:5; Jeremiah 48:10, Margin).
no work . . . in the grave--(John 9:4, Revelation 14:13). "The soul's play-day is Satan's work-day; the idler the man the busier the tempter" [SOUTH].
11. This verse qualifies the sentiment, Ecclesiastes
9:7-9. Earthly "enjoyments," however lawful in their place (Ecclesiastes
3:1), are to give way when any work to be done for God requires it.
Reverting to the sentiment (Ecclesiastes
8:17), we ought, therefore, not only to work God's work "with
9:10), but also with the feeling that the event is wholly "in God's
race . . . not to the swift--(2 Samuel 18:23); spiritually (Zephaniah 3:19, Romans 9:16).
nor . . . battle to . . . strong--(1 Samuel 17:47, 2 Chronicles 14:9,11,15, Psalms 33:16).
favour--of the great.
chance--seemingly, really Providence. But as man cannot "find it out" (Ecclesiastes 3:11), he needs "with all might" to use opportunities. Duties are ours; events, God's.
12. his time--namely, of death (Ecclesiastes
13:22). Hence the danger of delay in doing the work of God, as one knows not
when his opportunity will end (Ecclesiastes
evil net--fatal to them. The unexpected suddenness of the capture is the point of comparison. So the second coming of Jesus Christ, "as a snare" (Luke 21:35).
evil time--as an "evil net," fatal to them.
13. Rather, "I have seen wisdom of this kind also," that is, exhibited in the way which is described in what follows [MAURER].
14, 15. (2 Samuel
bulwarks--military works of besiegers.
15. poor--as to the temporal advantages of true wisdom, though it
often saves others. It receives little reward from the world, which admires none
save the rich and great.
no man remembered--(Genesis 40:23).
16. Resuming the sentiment (Ecclesiastes
poor man's wisdom is despised--not the poor man mentioned in Ecclesiastes 9:15; for his wisdom could not have saved the city, had "his words not been heard"; but poor men in general. So Paul (Acts 27:11).
17. The words of wise, &c.--Though generally the poor wise man is
not heard (Ecclesiastes
9:16), yet "the words of wise men, when heard in quiet (when calmly
given heed to, as in Ecclesiastes
9:15), are more serviceable than," &c.
ruleth--as the "great king" (Ecclesiastes 9:14). Solomon reverts to "the rulers to their own hurt" (Ecclesiastes 8:9).
18. one sinner, &c.--(Joshua 7:1,11,12). Though wisdom excels folly (Ecclesiastes 9:16, Ecclesiastes 7:19), yet a "little folly (equivalent to sin) can destroy much good," both in himself (Ecclesiastes 10:1, 2:10) and in others. "Wisdom" must, from the antithesis to "sinner," mean religion. Thus typically, the "little city" may be applied to the Church (Luke 12:32, Hebrews 12:22); the great king to Satan (John 12:31); the despised poor wise man, Jesus Christ (Isaiah 53:2,3, 6:3, 2 Corinthians 8:9, Ephesians 1:7,8, Colossians 2:3).