6:1 Now it came to pass on a sabbath1, that he was going through the grainfields; and his disciples plucked the ears, and did eat, rubbing them in their hands. JESUS DEFENDS DISCIPLES WHO PLUCK GRAIN ON THE SABBATH. (Probably while on the way from Jerusalem to Galilee.) Matthew 12:1-8; Mark 2:23-28; Luke 6:1-5
Now it came to pass on a sabbath, etc. See Mark
6:2 But certain of the Pharisees said, Why
do ye that which it is not lawful to do on the sabbath day1?
Why do ye that which it is not lawful to do on the sabbath day? See
6:3 And Jesus
answering them said1, Have ye not read even this, what
David did, when he was hungry, he, and they that were with him;
And Jesus answering them said, etc. See Mark
6:4 how he entered into the house of God,
and took and ate the showbread, and gave also to them that were with him; which
it is not lawful to eat save for the priests alone?
How he went into the house of God, etc. See Mark
6:5 And he said unto them, The
Son of man is lord of the sabbath1.
The Son of man is Lord of the sabbath. See Mark
6:6 And it came to
pass on another sabbath1, that he
entered into the synagogue2 and taught: and there was a
man there, and his right hand was withered.
JESUS DEFENDS HEALING A WITHERED HAND ON THE SABBATH. (Probably Galilee.) Matthew
And it came to pass on another sabbath. Another sabbath than that
on which the disciples plucked the grain (Luke
That he entered into the synagogue, etc. See Mark
6:7 And the scribes
and the Pharisees watched him1, whether he would heal on
the sabbath; that they might find how to accuse him.
And the scribes and the Pharisees watched him, etc. See Mark
6:8 But he knew
their thoughts1; and he said to
the man that had his hand withered, Rise up, and stand forth in the midst2.
And he arose and stood forth.
But he knew their thoughts. Omnisciently.
And he said to the man that had his hand withered, Rise up, and stand
forth in the midst. See Mark
6:9 And Jesus said unto them, I ask you, Is
it lawful on the sabbath to do good, or to do harm? to save a life, or to
Is it lawful on the sabbath to do good, or to do harm? to save a life,
or to destroy it? See Mark
6:10 And he looked
round about on them all, and said unto him, Stretch forth thy hand1.
And he did [so]: and his hand was restored.
And he looked round about on them all, and said unto him, Stretch forth
thy hand. See Mark
6:11 But they were filled with madness; and
communed one with another what they might do to Jesus1.
And communed one with another what they might do to Jesus. See Mark
6:12 And it came
to pass in these days, that he went out into the mountain to pray; and he
continued all night in prayer to God1.
AFTER PRAYER JESUS SELECTS TWELVE APOSTLES. (Near Capernaum.) Matthew
And it came to pass in these days, that he went out into the mountain
to pray; and he continued all night in prayer to God. It was a momentous
occasion. He was about to choose those to whom he was to entrust the
planting, organizing, and training of that church which was to be the
purchase of his own blood. Jesus used such important crises, not as
occasions for anxiety and worry, but as fitting times to seek and obtain the
Father's grace and blessing.
6:13 And when it
was day, he called his disciples; and he chose from them twelve1,
whom also he named apostles2:
And when it was day, he called his disciples; and he chose from them
twelve. See Mark
Whom also he named apostles. See Matthew
6:14 Simon, whom
he also named Peter1, and Andrew
his brother2, and James and John3,
and Philip4 and Bartholomew5,
Simon, whom he also named Peter. See Mark
Andrew his brother. See Matthew
James and John. See Mark
Philip. See John
Bartholomew. See Mark
6:15 and Matthew
and Thomas, and James [the son] of Alphaeus1, and Simon
who was called the Zealot2,
Matthew and Thomas, and James [the son] of Alphaeus. See Mark
Simon who was called the Zealot. See Mark
3:18 on Simon the Canaanite.
6:16 and Judas
[the son] of James1, and Judas
Iscariot, who became a traitor2;
Judas [the son] of James. See Mark
3:18 on Thaddaeus.
Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor. See Mark
6:17 and he came
down with them1, and stood on a
level place2, and a great multitude of his disciples, and
a great number of the people from all Judaea and
Jerusalem3, and the sea coast of Tyre
and Sidon4, who came to hear him, and to be healed of
THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. (A mountain plateau not far from Capernaum.) A.
INTRODUCTORY STATEMENTS. Matthew
And he came down with them. The twelve apostles whom he had just
And stood on a level place. Harmonists who wish to make this sermon
in Luke identical with the sermon on the mount recorded by Matthew, say that
Jesus stood during the healing of the multitude, and that he afterwards went
a little way up the mountain-side and sat down when he taught (Matthew
5:1). The plain is meant by our translators to indicate a plateau on the
side of the mountain, and not the plain at its base. In this translation
they were influenced somewhat by a desire to make the two sermons one. It is
more likely that the sermons were not identical, yet they were probably
delivered about the same time, for in each Evangelist the sermon is followed
by an account of the healing of the centurion's servant. As it is a matter
of no great importance whether there was one sermon or two, and as they
contain many things in common, we have taken the liberty of combining them
to save time and space. The sermon is an announcement of certain distinctive
features of the kingdom of heaven, which was said to be at hand.
From all Judaea and Jerusalem. See Mark
Tyre and Sidon. See Matthew
6:18 and they that were troubled with unclean
spirits1 were healed.
Unclean spirits. See Mark
6:19 And all the
multitude sought to touch him1; for power came forth from
him, and healed [them] all.
And all the multitude sought to touch him. By comparing this with
the foregoing section, we shall find that Mark had described this same crowd
3:10); the only difference between him and Luke being that he tells
about it the day before Jesus chose the twelve apostles, while Luke
describes its presence on the day after the event. Thus one substantiates
6:20 And he lifted
up his eyes on his disciples1, and said, Blessed
[are] ye poor: for yours is the kingdom of God2.
And he lifted up his eyes on his disciples. Luke notes the eloquent
look of Jesus here and elsewhere (Luke
22:61). While spoken to all, the sermon was addressed to the disciples,
revealing to them the nature of the kingdom, and contrasting with it: (1)
popular expectation; (2) the Mosaic system; (3) Pharisaic hypocrisy.
THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. (A mountain plateau not far from Capernaum.) B.
BEATITUDES: PROMISES TO MESSIAH'S SUBJECTS Matthew
Blessed [are] ye poor: for yours is the kingdom of God. See Matthew
6:21 Blessed [are]
ye that hunger now1: for ye shall be filled. Blessed [are]
ye that weep now: for ye shall laugh.
Blessed [are] ye that hunger now, etc. These three beatitudes given
by Luke (Luke
6:20,21), like the two closing beatitudes of Matthew
5:9-11 are pronounced not upon character, but upon those in certain
trying conditions. They are addressed to the disciples (Luke
6:17), and are meant to strengthen and encourage them to continue in the
life of sacrifice when discipleship demanded. For light upon the meaning of
these beatitudes, see such passages as these: Matthew
10:22-25. The service to which Jesus called meant poverty, hunger, and
tears, but it led to rich reward (1 Corinthians
11:23-33 1 Corinthians
6:22 Blessed are
ye, when men shall hate you1, and when they shall separate
you [from their company], and reproach you, and cast out your name as evil, for
the Son of man's sake.
Blessed are ye, when men shall hate you, etc. See Matthew
6:23 Rejoice in
that day, and leap [for joy]1: for behold, your reward is
great in heaven; for in the same manner did their fathers unto the prophets.
Rejoice in that day, and leap [for joy]. See Matthew
6:24 But woe unto
you that are rich! for ye have received your consolation1.
These three woes are respectively the converse of the three beatitudes
recorded in Luke
6:20,21. This converse is to be expected, for as long as sin lasts woes
stand over against beatitudes as Ebal against Gerizim. See Deuteronomy
8:33. But the woes here expressed by the Savior is more of a cry of
compassion than a denunciation, and may be translated, "Alas for
But woe unto you that are rich! for ye have received your consolation.
The first woe applied to those who love and trust in riches (Mark
10:24). Jesus does not clearly define the line beyond which the
possession of riches becomes a danger, lest any, fancying himself to be on
the safe side of the line, should lull himself to repose and be taken off
his guard. Riches are "always" dangerous, and we must be ever
watchful against their seduction.
6:25 Woe unto you, ye that are full now!
for ye shall hunger. Woe [unto you], ye that laugh now! for ye shall mourn and
Woe to you that are full! for ye shall hunger. The second woe is
kindred to the first. Righteousness is the soul's true food. Those who feast
upon it shall be satisfied, but those who satiate themselves with this world
shall waken some day to a sense of emptiness, since they have filled
themselves with vanity. (Ecclesiastes
Woe to you that laugh now! for ye shall mourn and weep. The third
woe is not pronounced upon those who make merriment an occasional relief; (Proverbs
15:13,15). but upon those who, through lack of earnestness, make it a
constant aim. Half the world has no higher object in life than to be amused.
7:6). Those who sow folly shall reap a harvest of tears. The truth of
this saying was abundantly fulfilled in the Jewish wars, which culminated in
the destruction of Jerusalem about forty years later.
6:26 Woe [unto
you], when all men shall speak well of you! for in the same manner did their
fathers to the false prophets1.
Woe [unto you], when all men shall speak well of you! for in the same
manner did their fathers to the false prophets. This is the converse to
the beatitudes pronounced upon those who are reviled, etc. A righteous life
rebukes an evil one, and the general tendency of evil is to deride that
which rebukes it. This tendency caused the wicked of Christ's times to say
that he had a demon (Matthew
11:15). If our lives draw to themselves no reproach, they cannot be
right in the sight of God. A good name is more to be desired than great
riches; but we must not sacrifice our fidelity to Christ in order to attain
it. If we adhere strictly to the virtues which Christ enjoined, we shall
find that the world has an evil name for every one of them. Earnest
contention for his truth is called bigotry; loyalty to his ordinances is
dubbed narrowness; strict conformity to the laws of purity is named
puritanism; liberality is looked upon as an effort to court praise; piety is
scorned as hypocrisy; and faith is regarded as fanaticism.
6:27 But I say unto you that hear, Love
your enemies, do good to them that hate you1,
THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. (A mountain plateau not far from Capernaum.) D.
RELATION OF MESSIANIC TEACHING TO OLD TESTAMENT AND TRADITIONAL TEACHING. Matthew
Love your enemies, do good to them that hate you. See Matthew
6:28 bless them that curse you, pray for
them that despitefully use you.
Love your enemies, and pray for them that persecute you. See Matthew
6:29 To him that
smiteth thee on the [one] cheek offer also the other1; and
from him that taketh away thy cloak withhold not thy coat also2.
To him that smiteth thee on the [one] cheek offer also the other.
And from him that taketh away thy cloak withhold not thy coat also.
6:30 Give to every one that asketh thee;
and of him that taketh away thy goods ask them not again.
Give to every man that asketh of thee. See Matthew
6:31 And as ye
would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise1.
THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. (A mountain plateau not far from Capernaum.) I. THE
GOLDEN RULE Matthew
And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise.
7:12. The great sages* Socrates, Buddha, Confucius, and Hillel each
groped after this truth, but they stated it thus: "Do not do to others
what you would not have done to you"; thus making it a rule of
"not doing" rather than of doing. But the striking difference
between these teachers and Christ lies not in the statements so much as in
the exemplification. Jesus "lived" the Golden Rule in his conduct
toward men, and maintained perfect righteousness before God in addition
*NOTE.--It is instructive to consider the statements of these
philosophers and teachers referred to by McGarvey and Pendleton. The Greek
rhetorician and orator, Socrates (469-399 B.C.), in his "Advice to
"What stirs your anger when done to you by others, that do not to
According to the Talmud Shabbath, Hillel (fl. 30 B.C.-A.D. 10), the
renowned Jewish rabbi, proposes,
"What is hateful to you do not to your neighbor. This is the whole
Law, the rest is Commentary."
The Chinese philosopher and teacher Confucius (551-479 B.C.) in his
Analects 15:23 says, in what is called "The Silver Rule",
"What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others."
Using ordinary research tools, I have not been able to locate the
quotation attribted to Buddha. Perhaps McGarvey was referring to the Hindu
epic poem, "The Mahabharata", which states,
"Do nothing to thy neighbor which thou wouldst not have him do to
thee hereafter." [E.S.]
6:32 And if ye
love them that love you, what thank have ye1? for even
sinners love those that love them.
And if ye love them that love you, what thank have ye? See Matthew
6:33 And if ye do
good to them that do good to you, what thank have ye1? for
even sinners do the same.
And if ye do good to them that do good to you, what thank have ye?
6:34 And if ye
lend to them of whom ye hope to receive, what thank have ye1?
even sinners lend to sinners, to receive again as much.
And if ye lend to them of whom ye hope to receive, what thank have ye?
6:35 But love your
enemies, and do [them] good, and lend, never despairing1;
and your reward shall be great, and ye shall be sons of
the Most High2: for he is kind toward the unthankful and
But love your enemies, and do [them] good, and lend, never despairing.
5:44. Clarke writes,
"To make our neighbor purchase, in any way, the assistance which we
give him is to profit by his misery; and, by laying him under obligations
which we expect him in some way or other to discharge, we increase his
wretchedness under the pretense of relieving him."
And ye shall be sons of the Most High, etc. See Matthew
6:36 Be ye
merciful, even as your Father is merciful1.
Be ye merciful, even as your Father is merciful. See Matthew
6:37 And judge
not, and ye shall not be judged1: and condemn not, and ye
shall not be condemned: release, and ye shall be released:
THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. (A mountain plateau not far from Capernaum.) G. LAW
CONCERNING JUDGING. Matthew
Judge not, and ye shall not be judged. See Matthew
6:38 give, and it
shall be given unto you1; good
measure, pressed down, shaken together, running over2, shall
they give into your bosom3. For with what measure ye mete
it shall be measured to you again.
Give, and it shall be given unto you. This not necessarily a
promise of the return of our gift in kind. It rather means that we shall
receive an equivalent in joy and in that blessedness which Jesus meant when
he said, "It is more blessed to give than to receive" (Acts
Good measure, pressed down, shaken together, running over. The
figurative language is borrowed from the market where the salesman, grateful
for past kindnesses, endeavors, by pressing, shaking, and piling up, to put
more grain into the measure for us that it will contain.
Shall they give into your bosom. Pockets were unknown to the
ancients, and what they wished to take with them was carried in the fold in
the bosom of the coat, the girdle below holding it up. Ruth bore this a
heavy burden in her mantle which, in the Authorized Version is mistakenly
called the "veil" (Ruth
6:39 And he spake also a parable unto them,
Can the blind guide the blind? shall they not both fall
into a pit2?
Can the blind guide the blind? Whoso lacks the knowledge of divine
truth cannot so lead others that they shall find it.
Shall they not both fall into a pit? They shall both fall into the
pitfalls of moral error and confusion.
6:40 The disciple
is not above his teacher1: but
every one when he is perfected shall be as his teacher2.
The disciple is not above his teacher. Pupils do not surpass their
teachers, or, if they do, they are self-taught, and hence do not owe to
their teachers that wherein they rise superior to them.
But every one when he is perfected shall be as his teacher. All
that the scholar can hope from his teacher is that when he is perfectly
instructed he shall be as his teacher. But if the teacher is a blind man
floundering in a ditch (Luke
6:39), he affords but a dismal prospect for his pupils. The perfection
of such teaching is certainly not desirable.
6:41 And why
beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the
beam that is in thine own eye1?
And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but
considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye? See Matthew
7:3. In Matthew and Luke Jesus gives slightly varying applications to
this allegorical passage by setting it in different connections. In Luke, as
we see it, he places it after the words which describe the disastrous effect
of being blind leaders of the blind (Luke
6:39,40). It therefore signifies in this connection that we ourselves
should first see if we would teach others to see. In Matthew he places it
after the words about censorious judgment (Matthew
7:1,2), where it means that we must judge ourselves before we can be fit
judges of others. The thought is practically the same, for there is little
difference between correcting others as their teachers or as their
6:43 For there is
no good tree that bringeth forth corrupt fruit; nor again a corrupt tree that
bringeth forth good fruit1.
THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. (A mountain plateau not far from Capernaum.) J. THE
TWO WAYS AND THE FALSE PROPHETS. Matthew
For there is no good tree that bringeth forth corrupt fruit; nor again
a corrupt tree that bringeth forth good fruit. Compare with Matthew
6:44 For each tree
is known by its own fruit. For of thorns men do not gather figs, nor of a
bramble bush gather they grapes1.
For each tree is known by its own fruit. For of thorns men do not
gather figs, nor of a bramble bush gather they grapes. Compare
6:45 The good man out of the good treasure
of his heart bringeth forth that which is good; and the evil [man] out of the
evil [treasure] bringeth forth that which is evil: for
out of the abundance of the heart his mouth speaketh1.
For out of the abundance of the heart his mouth speaketh. Teachers
are to be judged by their conduct as men, and also by the effect of their
teaching. If either be predominantly bad, the man must be avoided. But we
must not judge hastily, nor by slight and trivial actions, for some
specimens of bad fruit grow on good trees. See
6:46 And why call
ye me, Lord, Lord, and do not the things which I say1?
THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. (A mountain plateau not far from Capernaum.) K.
CONCLUSION AND APPLICATION: TWO BUILDERS. Matthew
And why call ye me, Lord, Lord, and do not the things which I say?
Why do ye give me the title, but withhold the service which should go with
it? See Malachi
6:47 Every one
that cometh unto me, and heareth my words, and doeth them1,
I will show you to whom he is like:
Every one that cometh unto me, and heareth my words, and doeth them.
6:48 he is like a
man building a house, who digged and went deep, and laid a foundation upon the
rock1: and when a flood arose,
the stream brake against that house, and could not shake it2:
because it had been well builded.
He is like a man building a house, who digged and went deep, and laid a
foundation upon the rock. See Matthew
And when a flood arose, the stream brake against that house, and could
not shake it. See Matthew
6:49 But he that
heareth, and doeth not, is like a man that built a house upon the earth without
a foundation1; against which the
stream brake, and straightway it fell in; and the ruin of that house was great2.
But he that heareth, and doeth not, is like a man that built a house
upon the earth without a foundation. See Matthew
Against which the stream brake, and straightway it fell in; and the
ruin of that house was great. See Matthew