4:1 Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit1 into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil2. JESUS TEMPTED IN THE WILDERNESS. Matthew 4:1-11; Mark 1:12,13; Luke 4:1-13
Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit, etc. See Mark
To be tempted of the devil. See Mark
4:2 And when he had
fasted forty days and forty nights1, he
And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights. A forty days'
fast was accomplished by Moses (Exodus
9:18), and by Elijah (1 Kings
19:8), and it is a significant fact in this connection that these two
men appeared with Christ at his transfiguration (Matthew
17:3). Those who share Christ's sufferings shall also share his
8:17; 2 Timothy
2:11,12). The forty days' fast became a basis for the temptation. We are
told that temptation results from the excitement of desire (James
1:14), and, as a rule, the greater the desire the greater the
temptation. Viewed from this standpoint the temptation of the second Adam
greatly exceeded in strength that of the first, for Adam abstained as to a
particular fruit, but Christ fasted as to all things edible.
He afterward hungered. Here, for the first time, our Lord is shown
as sharing our physical needs. We should note for our comfort that one may
lack bread and suffer want, and still be infinitely beloved in heaven.
4:3 And the tempter
came and said unto him1, If2
thou art the Son of God, command that these stones become bread.
And the tempter came and said unto him. Satan is pre-eminently the
tempter, for other tempters are his agents. He may possibly have appeared as
an angel of light (2 Corinthians
11:14), but the purpose of his coming is more important than the manner
of it. He came to produce sin in Jesus, for sin would render him forever
incapable of becoming our Savior--a sacrifice for the sin of others.
If. In the temptations Satan uses three "ifs". The first
"if" is one of despairing doubt (Matthew
4:3); the second, one of vainglorious speculation (Matthew
4:9); the third, one of moral and spiritual compromise (Matthew
If thou art the Son of God, command that these stones become bread.
This temptation appealed to the present appetite, the impulse of the moment,
as many of our temptations do. It has been quaintly said of the tempter that
"he had sped so successfully to his own mind by a temptation about a
matter of eating with the first Adam, that he practiced the old manner of
trading with the second."
This first temptation is still Satan's favorite with the poor. He
suggests to them that if they were really the beloved objects of God's care,
their condition would be otherwise. We should note that Jesus wrought no
selfish miracle. Such an act would have been contrary to all Scripture
precedent. Paul did not heal himself (1 Corinthians
4:13 (2 Timothy
4:20). Denying himself the right to make bread in the wilderness, Christ
freely used his miraculous power to feed others in the desert (Matthew
14:15-21), and merited as just praise those words which were meant as a
bitter taunt (Matthew
27:42). See Luke
4:4 But he answered
and said, It is written1, Man2
shall not live by bread alone3, but
by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God4.
But he answered and said, It is written. Jesus quotes Deuteronomy
8:3. It is a saying relative to the times when Israel was sustained by
manna in the wilderness. The case of Jesus was now similar to that of
Israel. He was in a foodless wilderness, but he trusted that as God had
provided for Israel in its helplessness, so would he now provide for him.
Israel sinned by doubt and murmuring, and proposing to obtain bread in its
own way--that is, by returning to Egypt (Exodus
16:1-9). Jesus avoided a like sin. We should note the use which our Lord
made of Scripture: in his hour of trial he did not look to visions and
voices and special revelation for guidance, but used the written Word as the
lamp for his feet (Psalms
119:105); in the conflict of temptation he did not defend himself by his
own divine wisdom, but used that wisdom which God had revealed to all Israel
through his prophets. Jesus fought as a man (Philippians
2:6,7), and used that weapon which, as God, he had given to man (Ephesians
6:17). Jesus used the Scripture as of final, argument-ending authority.
Eve also started with "God hath said" (Genesis
3:3); but she was not constant in her adherence to God's word. Jesus
permitted Satan neither to question nor pervert the Scripture.
Man. In using the word "man", Jesus takes his stand with
us as a human being.
Shall not live by bread alone. Called out of Egypt as God's Son (Matthew
2:15), Jesus could well expect that he would be fed with manna after his
forty-days' fast. He trusted that God could furnish a table in the
78:19). We, too, have abundant reason for a like trust. God gave us our
lives, and gave his Son to redeem them from sin. He may let us suffer, but
we can not perish is we trust him. Let us live by his word rather than by
bread. It is better to die for righteousness than to live by sin. God fed
Israel with supernatural bread, to show the people that they lived thus, and
not by what they were pleased to call natural means. The stomach is a useful
agent, but it snot the source of life, nor even the life sustainer. Those
who think that the securing of bread is the first essential to the
sustaining of life, will fail to seek any diviner food, and so will
eventually starve with hunger--soul hunger.
But by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. To
satisfy our sense of duty is often more pleasant than to appease the pangs
of hunger (John
15:16). The trust of Jesus that God would speak in his behalf and save
him, was like that of Job (Job
13:15). God can sustain our lives without food if he chooses. We shall
live if God wills it, bread or no bread; and we shall likewise die at his
17:28). God can support our lives independent of our body (Matthew
4:5 Then the devil
taketh him1 into the holy city2;
and he set him on the pinnacle of the temple4,
Then the devil taketh him. Matthew emphasizes the compulsory
companionship of Satan. Jesus was in the hands of Satan, as was Job (Job
2:5,6); but in Jesus' case Satan had the power of life and death, and he
eventually took Jesus to the cross and slew him there.
Into the holy city. A common name for Jerusalem. The inscription on
Jewish coins was "Jerusalem the Holy". Arabs today call it
"el Kuds", "the Holy". The Holy City did not exclude the
tempter nor temptations. The church may be the scene of man's sorest trial
to resist wrong. But in the Holy City which is to come there be no
And set him. The two verbs "taketh" and "setteth"
imply that Satan exercised a control over the bodily person of our Lord.
On the pinnacle of the temple. It is not known exactly what spot is
indicated by the word "pinnacle". Hence three places have been
contended for the proper locality: (1) The apex of the temple structure
itself. (2) The top of Solomon's porch. (3) The top of Herod's royal
portico. As to the temple itself, Josephus tells us that its roof was
covered with spikes of gold, to prevent even birds from alighting upon it,
and, if so, men could not stand upon it. Solomon's porch, or the eastern
portico, faced the Mount of Olives, and has been fixed upon by traditions as
the place from which James, the Lord's brother, was hurled. The royal
portico of Herod was at the southeast corner of the temple enclosure, and
overlooked the valley of Kidron. Here was then, therefore, the most suitable
place for Satan's proposal.
4:6 and saith unto
him, If1 thou art the Son of God, cast thyself down: for
it is written3, He shall give his
angels charge concerning thee4: and, On their hands they
shall bear thee up, lest haply thou dash thy foot against a stone.
And saith unto him, If. Godly life rests on faith. The life the
devil would have us lead rests on ifs and uncertainties, on doubt and
skepticism. We should note that foolish men doubt the divinity of Jesus, but
the temptations of our Lord show how positively Satan was convinced of it.
The opening scenes of Christ's ministry are redolent with his divinity. The
Baptist asserted his purity and might, the Spirit visibly acknowledged his
worthiness, the Father audibly testified to his Sonship, and the devil twice
assaulted him as the divine champion.
If thou art the Son of God, cast thyself down. The first temptation
was to under-confidence; the second to over-trust and presumption--two very
dangerous conditions of the soul. Men begin by disparagingly doubting that
Jesus can save them from their sins, and end by recklessly presuming that he
will save them in their sins. Comparing this with Eve's temptation, we find
that she was vainly curious to see if she might be like God (Genesis
3:5), but Christ resisted such curiously. It is urged by some as to this
temptation that there is no hint of vainglory or display, because nothing is
said about casting himself down in the presence of the people, and that
Jesus was merely taken to the temple because the sacred locality would tend
to heighten his trust in the protecting promise which Satan quoted. But this
ground is not well taken, for (1) The temple presumes a crowd. (2) We have a
right to presume that this temptation would be like others to which Jesus
was subjected. He was frequently invited to work miracles to satisfy
curiosity, and he invariably refused to do so.
For it is written. This quotation is taken from Psalms
91:11,12 and applies to man generally. Note: (1) The devil's head is
full of Scripture, but to no profit, for his heart is empty of it. (2) By
quoting it he shows a sense of its power which modern rationalism would do
well to consider. (3) Satan's abuse of Scripture did not discourage Christ's
use of it.
He shall give his angels charge concerning thee. Regarding Satan's
words as a quotation, we are struck with the fact that his knowledge of this
particular passage was based upon his personal experience. He had been
confronted by the presence of the guardian angels and had fretted at it (Job
1:10; 2 Kings
1:9). As a temptation, Satan's words appeal to Jesus to be more
religious; to put more trust and reliance upon the promises of the Father;
and he puts him in the place--the temple--where he might argue that God
could at least afford to let his promise fail.
And on their hands they shall bear thee up. All who love pomp,
display of artistic taste, gaieties of fashion, intoxication of fame, etc.,
fall by this temptation. Those who truly rest on God's promises, stand on a
sure foundation, but those who rise one bubbles must come down when they
4:7 Jesus said unto
him, Again it is written1, Thou
shalt not make trial of the Lord thy God2.
Jesus said unto him, Again it is written. Whether
"written" or "said" (Luke
4:12), the writings of Scripture are in general the sayings of God. But
the Bible is not made up of isolated texts. To get a right understanding we
must compare Scripture with Scripture. We could have no higher endorsement
of the Old Testament than this use of it by Christ. It was sufficient for
him in his temptations, and with the addition of the New Testament, it is
sufficient for us in all things (2 Timothy
Thou shalt not make trial of the Lord thy God. Make experiment upon
God, set traps for him, put one's self in dangerous situations, hoping
thereby to draw forth some show of loving deliverance. Had Jesus cast
himself down, he would have demanded of the Father a needless miracle to
prove his Sonship, and would thereby have put the love of God to an
unnecessary trial. All who jeopardize themselves without any command of God
or call of duty, make trial of his love.
4:8 Again, the
devil taketh him1 unto an
exceeding high mountain2, and
showeth him3 all the kingdoms of
the world4, and the glory of them5;
Again, the devil taketh him. Whether naturally or supernaturally,
"whether in the body or out of the body" (2 Corinthians
12:2-4), we cannot tell. But it was a real, practical trial and
Unto an exceeding high mountain. It is immaterial which mountain
this was; for from no mountain could one see the whole earth with the
And showeth him. It is not said by either Matthew or Luke that
Jesus saw the kingdoms from the mountain-top, but that Satan
"showed" them to him. From any high Judean mountain it would be
easy for him to locate Rome, Greece, Egypt, Persia, and Assyria, and as he
pointed out their locality a few brief words of description would picture
them to the imagination of Jesus, and cause their glories to move before his
eyes. But it is very likely that to this description some sort of
supernatural vision was added. It tempted the eye of Jesus as the luscious
fruit did the eye of Eve (Genesis
All the kingdoms of the world. It tempted Jesus to realize the
dreams which the Jewish nation entertained. It was an appeal to him to
reveal himself in the fullness of his power and authority as above generals,
princes, kings, and all beings of all ages. An appeal to obtain by physical
rather than by spiritual power; by the short-cut path of policy rather than
by the long road of suffering and martyrdom. Jesus came to obtain the
kingdoms of the world. He was born King of the Jews, and confessed himself
to be a King before Pilate. All authority is now given to him, and he must
reign until he puts all his enemies under his feet, and until all the
kingdoms of the world become his kingdom. Satan's way to obtain this kingdom
differed from God's way. He might obtain it by doing Satan's will and
becoming his worshiper, or by worshiping God and doing his will. Satan would
give the speedier possession, but God the more lasting. We also strive for a
kingdom; but let us obtain ours as Christ did his.
And the glory of them. That is, all their resources as well as
their magnificence. Their cities, lands, and people, their armies,
treasures, and temples, etc. Many parents in encouraging their children to
seek earthly glory and distinction, unconsciously assist Satan in urging
4:9 and he said unto him, All
these things will I give thee1, if
thou wilt fall down and worship me2.
All these things will I give thee. From the standpoint of Christ's
humanity, how overwhelming the temptation! It was the world's honors to one
who had for thirty years led the life of a village carpenter; it was the
world's riches to him who had not where to lay his head. From the standpoint
of Jesus' divinity the temptation was repulsive. It was a large offer in the
sight of Satan, but a small one in the sight of him who made all the worlds.
Such offers are large to the children of the world, but small to those who
are by faith joint-heirs with Christ (Romans
3:7,8). But the temptation was, nevertheless, very specious and
plausible. The power of Jesus linked with that of Satan, and operating
through Jewish fanaticism and pagan expectation would, in a few months, have
brought the whole earth into one temporal kingdom, with Jesus as its head.
But the kingdom of Christ rested upon a surer promise (Psalms
2:8) than that here given by the "father of lies". God had
promised, and, despite the pretensions of Satan, God had not yet retired
from the government of the world. It was true that Satan and his emissaries
had, by usurpation, gained an apparent possession of the world, but Jesus
had right to it as the heir of God (Matthew
21:33-43). Being stronger than Satan, he had come to regain his kingdom,
not by treaty, but by conquest (Luke
11:19-22). Moreover, he would obtain it as a spiritual and not as a
carnal kingdom. Servants of Christ should remember this. Every attempt to
establish Messiah's kingdom as an outward, worldly dominion is an effort to
convert the kingdom of heaven into the kingdom of the devil. God's kingdom
cannot be secularized. It should be noted also that Satan omits the words
"if thou art the Son of God" (Matthew
4:3,6) in this instance, for their presence would have marred the force
of the temptation. Note also that this was the only temptation wherein Satan
evinced any show of generosity. He is slow to give anything, and most of us
sell out to him for nothing (Isaiah
If thou wilt fall down and worship me. See Matthew
4:3. Satan and God each seek the worship of man, but from very different
motives. God is holiness and goodness, and we are invited to worship him
that we may thereby be induced to grow like him. But Satan seeks worship for
vanity's sake. How vast the vanity which would give so great a reward for
one act of worship! Verily the devil is fond of it. He gives nothing unless
he obtains it, and all his generosity is selfishness. Worshiping before
Satan is the bending of the soul rather than of the body. He holds before
each of us some crown of success, and says: "Bend just a little;
slightly compromise your conscience. Accept the help of Pharisee and
Sadducee, and keep silent as to their sins. Mix a little diplomacy with your
righteousness. Stoop just a little. If you do, I will aid you and insure
your success. If you do not, I will defeat you and laugh at your
failures". It is Satan's sin to make such suggestions, but it is not
our sin until we comply with them. We may more quickly obtain by his wrong
way, but more surely by God's right way. Let no Christian be humiliated or
discouraged by gross temptation, since even the Son of God was tempted to
worship the devil. What Jesus would not do, the Beast has done, and has
received the kingdoms for a season (Revelation
13:1-9). Note, too, that it is all one whether we worship Satan, or
mammon, the gift which he offers (Matthew
4:10 Then saith Jesus unto him, Get
thee hence1, Satan2:
for it is written3, Thou
shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve4.
Get thee hence. The passionate utterance of an aroused soul.
Indignation is as divine as patience (Ephesians
4:26). Satan's sweetest temptation was most disgusting to Christ, for
its sin was so grossly apparent. It ran counter to the very first of the Ten
Commandments. Jesus would give it no room in his thoughts; he spurned it, as
being as heinous as the law describes it (Deuteronomy
5:6-11). Temptation must be peremptorily rejected. Jesus did not stop to
weigh the worthiness of Satan; it was sufficient that God only is to be
worshiped. As God, Jesus was himself an object of worship; but as man he
worshiped the Father privately and publicly. Satan sought to command Jesus,
but was commanded of him. Step by step Satan has obeyed this command, and
foot after foot, earth's spiritual world has been yielded by his departing
Satan. The first and second temptations were so subtle and covert,
and their sin so skillfully disguised, as to suggest that Satan himself was
disguised. If so, his pride and vanity, revealed in this last temptation,
betrayed him so that Jesus tore off his mask and called him by his right
name. When he tempted him in a somewhat similar matter, Jesus called Simon
Peter by this name (Matthew
16:23), but he laid a different command upon each of them. To Satan he
spoke as an enemy, saying, "Get thee hence". He ordered Satan from
his presence, for he had no proper place there. To Peter he spoke as to a
presumptuous disciple, saying, "Get thee behind me". The disciple
is a follower of his master, and his proper place is in the rear.
For it is written. Jesus gives a free translation of Deuteronomy
6:13. He substitutes the word "worship" for the word
"fear". Fear prohibits false and induces true worship, and loving
worship is the source of all acceptable service. The three Scripture
quotations used by Jesus are all from the book of Deuteronomy. He struck
Satan with that very part of the Spirit's sword which modern critical
infidelity, in the name of religion, and often aided by so-called religious
organizations, seeks to persuade us to cast away.
Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.
By serving God, Jesus obtained all the earthly authority which the devil
offered him, and heavenly authority in addition thereto (Matthew
28:18). So much better are the rewards of God than Satan's.
4:11 Then the
devil leaveth him1; and behold,
angels came2 and ministered unto
Then the devil leaveth him. See James
4:7. But Satan left to return many times. Here was the first being
endowed with human nature who had defeated Satan under all circumstances for
thirty years. This was Satan's first defeat under Christ's ministry. His
last is yet to come, and it shall come by this same Christ. Temptations are
battles. They leave the victor stronger and the vanquished weaker. Hence
Satan when resisted is represented as fleeing. But he only flees for a
season. He never despairs of the conflict so long as man is on the earth.
Christ was constantly tempted by the returning devil (Luke
22:28). As Jesus hung upon the cross, all these three temptations with
their accompanying "ifs" were spread out before him (Matthew
And behold, angels came. They had probably witnessed the contest.
Compare 1 Corinthians
4:9; 1 Timothy
3:16. Angels do not appear again visibly ministering unto Jesus until we
find him in Gethsemane (Luke
22:43). When Satan finally departs from us, we, too, shall find
ourselves in the presence of angels.
And ministered unto him. See Mark
4:12 Now when he1
heard that John was delivered up2,
he withdrew into Galilee3;
JESUS SETS OUT FROM JUDEA FOR GALILEE. A. REASONS FOR RETIRING TO GALILEE. Matthew
Now when he. Jesus.
Heard that John was delivered up. He was in Judea when he heard it.
He withdrew into Galilee. See John
4:13 and leaving
Nazareth1, he came and dwelt2
in Capernaum3, which is by the
sea, in the borders of Zebulun and Naphtali4:
JESUS' TEMPORARY RESIDENCE AT CAPERNAUM. Matthew
And leaving Nazareth. This expression means that Jesus now ceased
to make Nazareth his home. For description of Nazareth, see Luke
He came and dwelt. The word "dwelt" means that Jesus made
Capernaum his headquarters. He owned no house there (Matthew
8:20). He may have dwelt with some of his disciples--for instance, Simon
Capernaum means "city of Nahum", or "village of
consolation". Its modern name, Tel-Hum, means "hill of
Nahum". See John
In the borders of Zebulun and Naphtali. Capernaum was in Naphtali,
and the border of the tribe of Zebulun was three or four miles south of it.
This part of the country is densely populated, and had in it many choice
spirits such as Jesus chose for his apostles.
4:14 that it might
be fulfilled which was spoken through Isaiah the prophet1,
That it might be fulfilled which was spoken through Isaiah the prophet.
4:15 The land of Zebulun and the land of
Naphtali, toward the sea, beyond the Jordan, Galilee of
The land of Zebulun, and the land of Naphtali. See Isaiah
9:1. This land or region was the first to suffer in the beginning of
those wars which finally resulted in the captivity of the ten tribes. The
people of this district were smitten by Benhadad (1 Kings
15:20), and afterwards by Tiglathpileser (2 Kings
15:29; 1 Chronicles
5:26), some time before the general captivity of the ten tribes (2 Kings
Galilee of the Gentiles. So called because it was, according to
Strabo and others, inhabited by Egyptians, Arabians, and Phoenicians, as
well as by Hebrews.
4:16 the people that sat in darkness saw a
great light, and to them that sat in the region and shadow of death, to them did
light spring up.
The people that sat in darkness saw great light, etc. See Isaiah
9:2. Those who by reason of their ignorance and depravity suffered the
torments of war, and sat as it were under the shadow of the wing of death,
were designated by prophecies as the class among whom the light of the
gospel would spring up in the fullness and richness of its blessing. Jesus,
the "Light of the world" (John
8:12 pretense of its fulfillment. Galilee had its prophets, but the
enemies of Jesus themselves bear witness that none of them were great enough
"light" to fulfill this prophecy (John
4:17 From that time began Jesus to preach,
and to say, Repent ye; for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.
GENERAL ACCOUNT OF JESUS' TEACHING. Matthew
From that time Jesus began to preach. The time here indicated is
that of John the Baptist's imprisonment and Jesus' return to Galilee (Matthew
4:12). This time marked a new period in the public ministry of Jesus.
Hitherto he had taught, but he now began to preach. When the voice of his
messenger, John, was silenced, the King became his own herald. Paul quoted
the Greeks as saying that preaching was "foolishness" (1 Corinthians
1:23), but following the example here set by Christ, he used it as the
appointed means for saving souls. While Matthew gives us many of the earlier
incidents of Christ's life, he enters upon the account of his
"ministry" at the time when Jesus returned to Galilee. From that
time forward he was probably an eyewitness of the events which he records.
And to say, Repent: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. See Mark
4:18 And walking
by the sea of Galilee1, he saw two brethren, Simon who is
called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea; for they were
JESUS CALLS FOUR FISHERMEN TO FOLLOW HIM. (Sea of Galilee, near Capernaum.) Matthew
Walking by the Sea of Galilee, etc. See Mark
4:19 And he saith unto them, Come
ye after me1, and I will make you fishers of men.
Come ye after me, etc. See Mark
4:20 And they
straightway left the nets1, and followed him.
And they straightway left the nets. That is, Peter and Andrew. See Mark
4:21 And going on from thence he saw two
other brethren, James the [son] of Zebedee, and John his brother, in the boat
with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and he called them.
James . . . and John his brother. See Mark
4:22 And they
straightway left the boat and their father1, and followed
And they straightway left the boat and their father. That is, James
and John. See Mark
4:23 And Jesus
went about in all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues1,
and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing all manner of disease and
all manner of sickness among the people.
JESUS MAKES A PREACHING TOUR THROUGH GALILEE. Matthew
Jesus went about in all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues. See Mark
4:24 And the
report of him went forth into all Syria1: and they brought
unto him all that were sick, holden with divers diseases and torments, possessed
with demons, and epileptic, and palsied2;
and he healed them3.
And the report of him went forth into all Syria. Caravans passing
through Galilee back and forth between the Mediterranean seaports on the
west and the Persian cities on the east, and between Damascus on the north
and Egypt on the south, would carry the reports concerning Jesus far and
Palsied. The term "palsy" included all forms of
paralysis, catalepsy, and cramps. See Mark
And he healed them. Thus by his actions, Jesus showed that the
kingdom of God had come. The wonders of Moses were mostly miracles of
judgment, those of Jesus were acts of compassion. The diseases here
enumerated are still among the most difficult for physicians to handle.
4:25 And there followed him great
multitudes from Galilee and Decapolis2
and Jerusalem and Judaea and [from] beyond the Jordan.
There followed him great multitudes of people. These popular
demonstration, no doubt intensified the erroneous notion of his disciples
that the kingdom of Jesus was to be one of worldly grandeur.
Decapolis. The word is formed from the two Greek words
"deka" ("ten") and "polis" ("city").
As a geographical term, Decapolis refers to that part of Syria lying east,
southeast, and south of the Lake of Galilee. There is some doubt as to which
were the ten cities named, for there seem at times to have been fourteen of
them. Those commonly reckoned are Damascus, Philadelphia, Raphana,
Sycthopolis, Gadara, Hyppos, Dion, Pella, Galas, and Kanatha. The other four
are Abila and Kanata (distinct from Kanatha), Caesarea Philippi, and
Gergesa. None of these were in Galilee save Sycthopolis. According to
Ritter, these cities were colonized principally by veterans from the army of
Alexander the Great. A reminiscence of their Macedonian origin is found in
the fact that there was a city named Pella in Macedonia. These cities are
said to have been formed into a confederacy by Pompey the Great. In the time
of Jesus they were chiefly inhabited by Greeks or heathens, and not by Jews.
Josephus expressly calls Gadara and Hyppos Greek cities.
Beyond Jordan. The land beyond Jordan was called Perea, which means
"beyond". According to Josephus, it included territory between the
cities of Pella on the north and Machaerus on the south. That is to say, its
northern boundary began on the Jordan opposite the southern line of Galilee,
and its southern boundary was at Moab, about the middle of the east shore of
the Dead Sea.