This is the message we heard from Jesus and now declare to you: God is light, and there is no darkness in him at all. So we are lying if we say we have fellowship with God but go on living in spiritual darkness; we are not practicing the truth. But if we are living in the light, as God is in the light, then we have fellowship with each other, and the blood of Jesus, his Son, cleanses us from all sin. 1 John 1:5-7
The Spirit's conviction continues after you've become a Christ-follower. The penalty of your sin has been forever taken away, but the propensity to sin remains. You will always struggle with the temptation. Undoubtedly, there will be times when you give into the temptation and sin. While nothing can separate you from God's love, sin disrupts your fellowship with God.
Remember the parable of the prodigal son? When the younger son moved away and lived in sin, the father did not stop loving him. He longed for his son to return home. However, while the son was away their communication and fellowship was interrupted. Finally, the son came to his senses and was welcomed back home by his father.
When you sin you are not rejected or disowned. The Holy Spirit works in your heart to bring conviction, and hopefully, to cause you to come to your senses. The Holy Spirit's conviction exposes your sin, allows you to see your sin, and enables you to return home.
How do you respond when the Holy Spirit brings conviction to your heart?