Easton’s Bible Dictionary

  1. Heb. hemah, "heat," the poison of certain venomous reptiles (Deuteronomy 32:24,33; Job 6:4; Psalm 58:4), causing inflammation.
  2. Heb. rosh, "a head," a poisonous plant (Deuteronomy 29:18), growing luxuriantly (Hosea 10:4), of a bitter taste (Psalm 69:21; Lamentations 3:5), and coupled with wormwood; probably the poppy. This word is rendered "gall", which see, (Deuteronomy 29:18; 32:33; Psalm 69:21; Jeremiah 8:14, etc.), "hemlock" (Hosea 10:4; Amos 6:12), and "poison" (Job 20:16), "the poison of asps," showing that the rosh was not exclusively a vegetable poison.
  3. In Romans 3:13 (comp. Job 20:16; Psalm 140:3), James 3:8, as the rendering of the Greek ios.