As Revelation 16:12 stated generally the vial judgment about to be poured on the harlot, Babylon's power, as the seventeenth and eighteen chapters give the same in detail, so the nineteenth chapter gives in detail the judgment on the beast and the false prophet, summarily alluded to in Revelation 16:13-15, in connection with the Lord's coming.
1. unto me--A, B, Vulgate, Syriac, and Coptic omit.
many--So A. But B, "the many waters" (Jeremiah 51:13); Revelation 17:15, below, explains the sense. The whore is the apostate Church, just as "the woman" (Revelation 12:1-6) is the Church while faithful. Satan having failed by violence, tries too successfully to seduce her by the allurements of the world; unlike her Lord, she was overcome by this temptation; hence she is seen sitting on the scarlet-colored beast, no longer the wife, but the harlot; no longer Jerusalem, but spiritually Sodom (Revelation 11:8).
2. drunk with--Greek, "owing to." It cannot be pagan Rome, but papal Rome, if a particular seat of error be meant, but I incline to think that the judgment (Revelation 18:2) and the spiritual fornication (Revelation 18:3), though finding their culmination in Rome, are not restricted to it, but comprise the whole apostate Church, Roman, Greek, and even Protestant, so far as it has been seduced from its "first love" (Revelation 2:4) to Christ, the heavenly Bridegroom, and given its affections to worldly pomps and idols. The woman (Revelation 12:1) is the congregation of God in its purity under the Old and New Testament, and appears again as the Bride of the Lamb, the transfigured Church prepared for the marriage feast. The woman, the invisible Church, is latent in the apostate Church, and is the Church militant; the Bride is the Church triumphant.
3. the wilderness--Contrast her in Revelation
12:6,14, having a place in the wilderness-world, but not a home; a
sojourner here, looking for the city to come. Now, on the contrary, she is
contented to have her portion in this moral wilderness.
upon a scarlet . . . beast--The same as in Revelation 13:1, who there is described as here, "having seven heads and ten horns (therein betraying that he is representative of the dragon, Revelation 12:3), and upon his heads names (so the oldest manuscripts read) of blasphemy"; compare also Revelation 17:12-14, below, with Revelation 19:19,20, and Revelation 17:13,14,16. Rome, resting on the world power and ruling it by the claim of supremacy, is the chief, though not the exclusive, representative of this symbol. As the dragon is fiery-red, so the beast is blood-red in color; implying its blood-guiltiness, and also deep-dyed sin. The scarlet is also the symbol of kingly authority.
full--all over; not merely "on his heads," as in Revelation 13:1, for its opposition to God is now about to develop itself in all its intensity. Under the harlot's superintendence, the world power puts forth blasphemous pretensions worse than in pagan days. So the Pope is placed by the cardinals in God's temple on the altar to sit there, and the cardinals kiss the feet of the Pope. This ceremony is called in Romish writers "the adoration." [Historie de Clerge, Amsterd., 1716; and LETTENBURGH'S Notitia Curiæ Romanæ, 1683, p. 125; HEIDEGGER, Myst. Bab., 1, 511, 514, 537]; a papal coin [Numismata Pontificum, Paris, 1679, p. 5] has the blasphemous legend, "Quem creant, adorant." Kneeling and kissing are the worship meant by John's word nine times used in respect to the rival of God (Greek, "proskunein"). Abomination, too, is the scriptural term for an idol, or any creature worshipped with the homage due to the Creator. Still, there is some check on the God-opposed world power while ridden by the harlot; the consummated Antichrist will be when, having destroyed her, the beast shall be revealed as the concentration and incarnation of all the self-deifying God-opposed principles which have appeared in various forms and degrees heretofore. "The Church has gained outward recognition by leaning on the world power which in its turn uses the Church for its own objects; such is the picture here of Christendom ripe for judgment" [AUBERLEN]. The seven heads in the view of many are the seven successive forms of government of Rome: kings, consuls, dictators, decemvirs, military tribunes, emperors, the German emperors [WORDSWORTH], of whom Napoleon is the successor (Revelation 17:11). But see the view given, which I prefer. The crowns formerly on the ten horns (Revelation 13:1) have now disappeared, perhaps an indication that the ten kingdoms into which the Germanic-Slavonic world [the old Roman empire, including the East as well as the West, the two legs of the image with five toes on each, that is, ten in all] is to be divided, will lose their monarchical form in the end [AUBERLEN]; but see Revelation 17:12, which seems to imply crowned kings.
4. The color scarlet, it is remarkable, is that reserved for popes and
cardinals. Paul II made it penal for anyone but cardinals to wear hats of
scarlet; compare Roman Ceremonial [3.5.5]. This book was compiled several
centuries ago by MARCELLUS, a Romish archbishop, and dedicated to Leo X. In it
are enumerated five different articles of dress of scarlet color. A vest
is mentioned studded with pearls. The Pope's miter is of gold and precious
stones. These are the very characteristics outwardly which Revelation thrice
assigns to the harlot or Babylon. So Joachim an abbot from Calabria, about A.D.
1200, when asked by Richard of England, who had summoned him to Palestine,
concerning Antichrist, replied that "he was born long ago at Rome, and is
now exalting himself above all that is called God." ROGER HOVEDEN [Annals,
1.2], and elsewhere, wrote, "The harlot arrayed in gold is the Church of
Rome." Whenever and wherever (not in Rome alone) the Church, instead of
being "clothed (as at first, Revelation
12:1) with the sun" of heaven, is arrayed in earthly meretricious
gauds, compromising the truth of God through fear, or flattery, of the world's
power, science, or wealth, she becomes the harlot seated on the beast, and
doomed in righteous retribution to be judged by the beast (Revelation
17:16). Soon, like Rome, and like the Jews of Christ's and the apostles'
time leagued with the heathen Rome, she will then become the persecutor of the
17:6). Instead of drinking her Lord's "cup" of suffering, she has
"a cup full of abominations and filthinesses." Rome, in her medals,
represents herself holding a cup with the self-condemning inscription, "Sedet
super universum." Meanwhile the world power gives up its hostility and
accepts Christianity externally; the beast gives up its God-opposed character,
the woman gives up her divine one. They meet halfway by mutual concessions;
Christianity becomes worldly, the world becomes Christianized. The gainer is the
world; the loser is the Church. The beast for a time receives a deadly wound
13:3), but is not really transfigured; he will return worse than ever (Revelation
17:11-14). The Lord alone by His coming can make the kingdoms of this world
become the kingdoms of our Lord and His Christ. The "purple" is the
badge of empire; even as in mockery it was put on our Lord.
filthiness--A, B, and ANDREAS read, "the filthy (impure) things."
5. upon . . . forehead . . . name--as harlots
usually had. What a contrast to "HOLINESS TO THE LORD," inscribed on
the miter on the high priest's forehead!
mystery--implying a spiritual fact heretofore hidden, and incapable of discovery by mere reason, but now revealed. As the union of Christ and the Church is a "great mystery" (a spiritual truth of momentous interest, once hidden, now revealed, Ephesians 5:31,32), so the Church conforming to the world and thereby becoming a harlot is a counter "mystery" (or spiritual truth, symbolically now revealed). As iniquity in the harlot is a leaven working in "mystery," and therefore called "the mystery of iniquity," so when she is destroyed, the iniquity heretofore working (comparatively) latently in her, shall be revealed in the man of iniquity, the open embodiment of all previous evil. Contrast the "mystery of God" and "godliness," Revelation 10:7, 1 Timothy 3:16. It was Rome that crucified Christ; that destroyed Jerusalem and scattered the Jews; that persecuted the early Christians in pagan times, and Protestant Christians in papal times; and probably shall be again restored to its pristine grandeur, such as it had under the Cæsars, just before the burning of the harlot and of itself with her. So HIPPOLYTUS [On Antichrist] (who lived in the second century), thought. Popery cannot be at one and the same time the "mystery of iniquity," and the manifested or revealed Antichrist. Probably it will compromise for political power (Revelation 17:3) the portion of Christianity still in its creed, and thus shall prepare the way for Antichrist's manifestation. The name Babylon, which in the image, Daniel 2:32,38, is given to the head, is here given to the harlot, which marks her as being connected with the fourth kingdom, Rome, the last part of the image. Benedict XIII, in his indiction for a jubilee, A.D. 1725, called Rome "the mother of all believers, and the mistress of all churches" (harlots like herself). The correspondence of syllables and accents in Greek is striking; "He porne kai to therion; He numphe kai to arnion." "The whore and the beast; the Bride and the Lamb."
of harlots--Greek, "of the harlots and of the abominations." Not merely Rome, but Christendom as a whole, even as formerly Israel as a whole, has become a harlot. The invisible Church of true believers is hidden and dispersed in the visible Church. The boundary lines which separate harlot and woman are not denominational nor drawn externally, but can only be spiritually discerned. If Rome were the only seat of Babylon, much of the spiritual profit of Revelation would be lost to us; but the harlot "sitteth upon many waters" (Revelation 17:1), and "ALL nations have drunk of the wine of her fornication" (Revelation 17:2, Revelation 18:3; "the earth," Revelation 19:2). External extensiveness over the whole world and internal conformity to the world--worldliness in extent and contents--is symbolized by the name of the world city, "Babylon." As the sun shines on all the earth, thus the woman clothed with the sun is to let her light penetrate to the uttermost parts of the earth. But she, in externally Christianizing the world, permits herself to be seduced by the world; thus her universality or catholicity is not that of the Jerusalem which we look for ("the MOTHER of us all," Revelation 21:2'Isaiah 2:2-4'Galatians 4:26'), but that of Babylon, the world-wide but harlot city! (As Babylon was destroyed, and the Jews restored to Jerusalem by Cyrus, so our Cyrus--a Persian name meaning the sun--the Sun of righteousness, shall bring Israel, literal and spiritual, to the holy Jerusalem at His coming. Babylon and Jerusalem are the two opposite poles of the spiritual world). Still, the Romish Church is not only accidentally and as a matter of fact, but in virtue of its very PRINCIPLE, a harlot, the metropolis of whoredom, "the mother of harlots"; whereas the evangelical Protestant Church is, according to her principle and fundamental creed, a chaste woman; the Reformation was a protest of the woman against the harlot. The spirit of the heathen world kingdom Rome had, before the Reformation, changed the Church in the West into a Church-State, Rome; and in the East, into a State-Church, fettered by the world power, having its center in Byzantium; the Roman and Greek churches have thus fallen from the invisible spiritual essence of the Gospel into the elements of the world [AUBERLEN]. Compare with the "woman" called "Babylon" here, the woman named "wickedness," or "lawlessness," "iniquity" (Zechariah 5:7,8,11), carried to Babylon: compare "the mystery of iniquity" and "the man of sin," "that wicked one," literally, "the lawless one" (2 Thessalonians 2:7,8; also Matthew 24:12).
I wondered with great admiration--As the Greek is the same in the verb and the noun, translate the latter "wonder." John certainly did not admire her in the modern English sense. Elsewhere (Revelation 17:8, 13:3), all the earthly-minded ("they that dwell on the earth") wonder in admiration of the beast. Here only is John's wonder called forth; not the beast, but the woman sunken into the harlot, the Church become a world-loving apostate, moves his sorrowful astonishment at so awful a change. That the world should be beastly is natural, but that the faithful bride should become the whore is monstrous, and excites the same amazement in him as the same awful change in Israel excited in Isaiah and Jeremiah. "Horrible thing" in them answers to "abominations" here. "Corruptio optimi pessima"; when the Church falls, she sinks lower than the godless world, in proportion as her right place is higher than the world. It is striking that in Revelation 17:3, "woman" has not the article, "the woman," as if she had been before mentioned: for though identical in one sense with the woman, Revelation 12:1-6, in another sense she is not. The elect are never perverted into apostates, and still remain as the true woman invisibly contained in the harlot; yet Christendom regarded as the woman has apostatized from its first faith.
8. beast . . . was, and is not--(Compare Revelation
17:11). The time when the beast "is not" is the time during which
it has "the deadly wound"; the time of the seventh head
becoming Christian externally, when its beast-like character was put into
suspension temporarily. The healing of its wound answers to its ascending
out of the bottomless pit. The beast, or Antichristian world power, returns
worse than ever, with satanic powers from hell (Revelation
11:7), not merely from the sea of convulsed nations (Revelation
13:1). Christian civilization gives the beast only a temporary wound, whence
the deadly wound is always mentioned in connection with its being healed
up the non-existence of the beast in connection with its reappearance; and
Daniel does not even notice any change in the world power effected by
Christianity. We are endangered on one side by the spurious Christianity of the
harlot, on the other by the open Antichristianity of the beast; the third class
is Christ's little flock."
go--So B, Vulgate, and ANDREAS read the future tense. But A and IRENÆUS, "goeth."
into perdition--The continuance of this revived seventh (that is, the eighth) head is short: it is therefore called "the son of perdition," who is essentially doomed to it almost immediately after his appearance.
names were--so Vulgate and ANDREAS. But A, B, Syriac, and Coptic read the singular, "name is."
written in--Greek, "upon."
which--rather, "when they behold the beast that it was," &c. So Vulgate.
was, and is not, and yet is--A, B, and ANDREAS read, "and shall come" (literally, "be present," namely, again: Greek, "kai parestai"). The Hebrew, "tetragrammaton," or sacred four letters in Jehovah, "who is, who was, and who is to come," the believer's object of worship, has its contrasted counterpart in the beast "who was, and is not, and shall be present," the object of the earth's worship [BENGEL]. They exult with wonder in seeing that the beast which had seemed to have received its death blow from Christianity, is on the eve of reviving with greater power than ever on the ruins of that religion which tormented them (Revelation 11:10).
9. Compare Revelation
12:10, where similarly spiritual discernment is put forward as needed in
order to understand the symbolical prophecy.
seven heads and seven mountains--The connection between mountains and kings must be deeper than the mere outward fact to which incidental allusion is made, that Rome (the then world city) is on seven hills (whence heathen Rome had a national festival called Septimontium, the feast of the seven-hilled city [PLUTARCH]; and on the imperial coins, just as here, she is represented as a woman seated on seven hills. Coin of Vespasian, described by CAPTAIN SMYTH [Roman Coins, p. 310; ACKERMAN, 1, p. 87]). The seven heads can hardly be at once seven kings or kingdoms (Revelation 17:10), and seven geographical mountains. The true connection is, as the head is the prominent part of the body, so the mountain is prominent in the land. Like "sea" and "earth"and "waters . . . peoples" (Revelation 17:15), so "mountains" have a symbolical meaning, namely, prominent seats of power. Especially such as are prominent hindrances to the cause of God (Psalms 68:16,17, Isaiah 40:4, 41:15, 49:11, Ezekiel 35:2); especially Babylon (which geographically was in a plain, but spiritually is called a destroying mountain, Jeremiah 51:25), in majestic contrast to which stands Mount Zion, "the mountain of the Lord's house" (Isaiah 2:2), and the heavenly mount; Revelation 21:10, "a great and high mountain . . . and that great city, the holy Jerusalem." So in Daniel 2:35, the stone becomes a mountain--Messiah's universal kingdom supplanting the previous world kingdoms. As nature shadows forth the great realities of the spiritual world, so seven-hilled Rome is a representative of the seven-headed world power of which the dragon has been, and is the prince. The "seven kings" are hereby distinguished from the "ten kings" (Revelation 17:12):the former are what the latter are not, "mountains," great seats of the world power. The seven universal God-opposed monarchies are Egypt (the first world power which came into collision with God's people,) Assyria, Babylon, Greece, Medo-Persia, Rome, the Germanic-Slavonic empire (the clay of the fourth kingdom mixed with its iron in Nebuchadnezzar's image, a fifth material, Daniel 2:33,34,42,43, symbolizing this last head). These seven might seem not to accord with the seven heads in Daniel 7:4-7, one head on the first beast (Babylon), one on the second (Medo-Persia), four on the third (Greece; namely, Egypt, Syria, Thrace with Bithynia, and Greece with Macedon): but Egypt and Greece are in both lists. Syria answers to Assyria (from which the name Syria is abbreviated), and Thrace with Bithynia answers to the Gothic-Germanic-Slavonic hordes which, pouring down on Rome from the North, founded the Germanic-Slavonic empire. The woman sitting on the seven hills implies the Old and New Testament Church conforming to, and resting on, the world power, that is, on all the seven world kingdoms. Abraham and Isaac dissembling as to their wives through fear of the kings of Egypt foreshadowed this. Compare Ezekiel 16:1-63, 23:1-49, on Israel's whoredoms with Egypt, Assyria, Babylon; and Matthew 7:24, 24:10-12,23-26, on the characteristics of the New Testament Church's harlotry, namely, distrust, suspicion, hatred, treachery, divisions into parties, false doctrine.
10. there are--Translate, "they (the seven heads) are seven
five . . . one--Greek, "the five . . . the one"; the first five of the seven are fallen (a word applicable not to forms of government passing away, but to the fall of once powerful empires: Egypt, Ezekiel 29:1-30:26'; Assyria and Nineveh, Nahum 3:1-19; Babylon, Revelation 18:2'Jeremiah 50:1-51:64'; Medo-Persia, Daniel 8:3-7,20-22, 10:13, 11:2; Greece, Daniel 11:4). Rome was "the one" existing in John's days. "Kings" is the Scripture phrase for kingdoms, because these kingdoms are generally represented in character by some one prominent head, as Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, Medo-Persia by Cyrus, Greece by Alexander, &c.
the other is not yet come--not as ALFORD, inaccurately representing AUBERLEN, the Christian empire beginning with Constantine; but, the Germanic-Slavonic empire beginning and continuing in its beast-like, that is, HEATHEN Antichristian character for only "a short space." The time when it is said of it, "it is not" (Revelation 17:11), is the time during which it is "wounded to death," and has the "deadly wound" (Revelation 13:3). The external Christianization of the migrating hordes from the North which descended on Rome, is the wound to the beast answering to the earth swallowing up the flood (heathen tribes) sent by the dragon, Satan, to drown the woman, the Church. The emphasis palpably is on "a short space," which therefore comes first in the Greek, not on "he must continue," as if his continuance for some [considerable] time were implied, as ALFORD wrongly thinks. The time of external Christianization (while the beast's wound continues) has lasted for centuries, ever since Constantine. Rome and the Greek Church have partially healed the wound by image worship.
11. beast that . . . is not--his beastly character being
kept down by outward Christianization of the state until he starts up to life
again as "the eighth" king, his "wound being healed" (Revelation
13:3), Antichrist manifested in fullest and most intense opposition to God.
The "he" is emphatic in the Greek. He, peculiarly and
pre-eminently: answering to "the little horn" with eyes like the eyes
of a man, and a mouth speaking great things, before whom three of the ten
horns were plucked up by the roots, and to whom the whole ten "give
their power and strength" (Revelation
17:12,13,17). That a personal Antichrist will stand at the head of
the Antichristian kingdom, is likely from the analogy of Antiochus Epiphanes,
the Old Testament Antichrist, "the little horn" in Daniel
8:9-12; also, "the man of sin, son of perdition" (2 Thessalonians
2:3-8), answers here to "goeth into perdition," and is applied to
an individual, namely, Judas, in the only other passage where the phrase occurs
17:12). He is essentially a child of destruction, and hence he has but a
little time ascended out of the bottomless pit, when he "goes into
17:8,11). "While the Church passes through death of the flesh to glory
of the Spirit, the beast passes through the glory of the flesh to death"
is of the seven--rather "springs out of the seven." The eighth is not merely one of the seven restored, but a new power or person proceeding out of the seven, and at the same time embodying all the God-opposed features of the previous seven concentrated and consummated; for which reason there are said to be not eight, but only seven heads, for the eighth is the embodiment of all the seven. In the birth-pangs which prepare the "regeneration" there are wars, earthquakes, and disturbances [AUBERLEN], wherein Antichrist takes his rise ("sea," Revelation 13:1, 13:8, Luke 21:9-11). He does not fall like the other seven (Revelation 17:10), but is destroyed, going to his own perdition, by the Lord in person.
12. ten kings . . . received no kingdom as yet; but receive
power as kings . . . with the beast--Hence and from Revelation
17:14,16, it seems that these ten kings or kingdoms, are to be
contemporaries with the beast in its last or eighth form, namely, Antichrist.
2:34,44, "the stone smote the image upon his feet," that
is, upon the ten toes, which are, in Daniel
2:41-44, interpreted to be "kings." The ten kingdoms are
not, therefore, ten which arose in the overthrow of Rome (heathen), but are to
rise out of the last state of the fourth kingdom under the eighth head. I agree
with ALFORD that the phrase "as kings," implies that they
reserve their kingly rights in their alliance with the beast, wherein "they
give their power and strength unto" him (Revelation
17:13). They have the name of kings, but not with undivided kingly
power [WORDSWORTH]. See AUBERLEN'S not so
one hour--a definite time of short duration, during which "the devil is come down to the inhabitant of the earth and of the sea, having great wrath, because he knoweth that he hath but a short time." Probably the three and a half years (Revelation 11:2,3, 13:5). Antichrist is in existence long before the fall of Babylon; but it is only at its fail he obtains the vassalage of the ten kings. He in the first instance imposes on the Jews as the Messiah, coming in his own name; then persecutes those of them who refuse his blasphemous pretensions. Not until the sixth vial, in the latter part of his reign, does he associate the ten kings with him in war with the Lamb, having gained them over by the aid of the spirits of devils working miracles. His connection with Israel appears from his sitting "in the temple of God" (2 Thessalonians 2:4), and as the antitypical "abomination of desolation standing in the Holy place" (Daniel 9:27, 12:11, Matthew 24:15), and "in the city where our Lord was crucified" (Revelation 11:8). It is remarkable that IRENÆUS [Against Heresies, 5:25] and CYRIL OF JERUSALEM [RUFINUS, Historia Monachorum, 10.37] prophesied that Antichrist would have his seat at Jerusalem and would restore the kingdom of the Jews. JULIAN the apostate, long after, took part with the Jews, and aided in building their temple, herein being Antichrist's forerunner.
13. one mind--one sentiment.
shall give--So Coptic. But A, B, and Syriac, "give."
strength--Greek, "authority." They become his dependent allies (Revelation 17:14). Thus Antichrist sets up to be King of kings, but scarcely has he put forth his claim when the true KING OF KINGS appears and dashes him down in a moment to destruction.
14. These shall . . . war with the Lamb--in league with the
beast. This is a summary anticipation of Revelation
19:19. This shall not be till after they have first executed judgment
on the harlot (Revelation
Lord of lords, &c.--anticipating Revelation 19:16.
are--not in the Greek. Therefore translate, "And they that are with Him, called chosen, and faithful (shall overcome them, namely, the beast and his allied kings)." These have been with Christ in heaven unseen, but now appear with Him.
8:7.) An impious parody of Jehovah who "sitteth upon the flood"
[ALFORD]. Also, contrast the "many waters" Revelation
peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues--The "peoples," &c. here mark the universality of the spiritual fornication of the Church. The "tongues" remind us of the original Babel, the confusion of tongues, the beginning of Babylon, and the first commencement of idolatrous apostasy after the flood, as the tower was doubtless dedicated to the deified heavens. Thus, Babylon is the appropriate name of the harlot. The Pope, as the chief representative of the harlot, claims a double supremacy over all peoples, typified by the "two swords" according to the interpretation of Boniface VIII in the Bull, "Unam Sanctam," and represented by the two keys: spiritual as the universal bishop, whence he is crowned with the miter; and temporal, whence he is also crowned with the tiara in token of his imperial supremacy. Contrast with the Pope's diadems the "many diadems" of Him who alone has claim to, and shall exercise when He shall come, the twofold dominion (Revelation 19:12).
16. upon the beast--But A, B, Vulgate, and Syriac read,
"and the beast."
shall make her desolate--having first dismounted her from her seat on the beast (Revelation 17:3).
naked--stripped of all her gaud (Revelation 17:4). As Jerusalem used the world power to crucify her Saviour, and then was destroyed by that very power, Rome; so the Church, having apostatized to the world, shall have judgment executed on her first by the world power, the beast and his allies; and these afterwards shall have judgment executed on them by Christ Himself in person. So Israel leaning on Egypt, a broken reed, is pierced by it; and then Egypt itself is punished. So Israel's whoredom with Assyria and Babylon was punished by the Assyrian and Babylonian captivities. So the Church when it goes a-whoring after the word as if it were the reality, instead of witnessing against its apostasy from God, is false to its profession. Being no longer a reality itself, but a sham, the Church is rightly judged by that world which for a time had used the Church to further its own ends, while all the while "hating" Christ's unworldly religion, but which now no longer wants the Church's aid.
eat her flesh--Greek plural, "masses of flesh," that is, "carnal possessions"; implying the fulness of carnality into which the Church is sunk. The judgment on the harlot is again and again described (Revelation 18:1, 19:5); first by an "angel having great power" (Revelation 18:1), then by "another voice from heaven" (Revelation 18:4-20), then by "a mighty angel" (Revelation 18:21-24). Compare Ezekiel 16:37-44, originally said of Israel, but further applicable to the New Testament Church when fallen into spiritual fornication. On the phrase, "eat . . . flesh" for prey upon one's property, and injure the character and person, compare Psalms 14:4, 27:2, Jeremiah 10:25, Micah 3:3. The First Napoleon's Edict published at Rome in 1809, confiscating the papal dominions and joining them to France, and later the severance of large portions of the Pope's territory from his sway and the union of them to the dominions of the king of Italy, virtually through Louis Napoleon, are a first instalment of the full realization of this prophecy of the whore's destruction. "Her flesh" seems to point to her temporal dignities and resources, as distinguished from "herself" (Greek). How striking a retribution, that having obtained her first temporal dominions, the exarchate of Ravenna, the kingdom of the LOMBARDs, and the state of Rome, by recognizing the usurper Pepin as lawful king of France, she should be stripped of her dominions by another usurper of France, the Napoleonic dynasty!
burn . . . with fire--the legal punishment of an abominable fornication.
17. hath put--the prophetical past tense for the future.
fulfil--Greek, "do," or "accomplish." The Greek, "poiesai," is distinct from that which is translated, "fulfilled," Greek, "telesthesontai," below.
his will--Greek, "his mind," or purpose; while they think only of doing their own purpose.
to agree--literally, "to do" (or accomplish) one mind" or "purpose." A and Vulgate omit this clause, but B supports it.
the words of God--foretelling the rise and downfall of the beast; Greek, "hoi logoi," in A, B, and ANDREAS. English Version reading is Greek, "ta rhemata," which is not well supported. No mere articulate utterances, but the efficient words of Him who is the Word: Greek, "logos."
18. reigneth--literally, "hath kingship over the kings." The harlot cannot be a mere city literally, but is called so in a spiritual sense (Revelation 11:8). Also the beast cannot represent a spiritual power, but a world power. In this verse the harlot is presented before us ripe for judgment. The eighteenth chapter details that judgment.