Brethren, my heart's desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved.
My prayer to God is, that they may be saved — He would not have prayed for this, had they been absolutely reprobated.
 For I bear them record that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge.
They have a zeal, but not according to knowledge — They had zeal without knowledge; we have knowledge without zeal.
 For they being ignorant of God's righteousness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God.
For they being ignorant of the righteousness of God — Of the method God has established for the justification of a sinner.
And seeking to establish their own righteousness — Their own method of acceptance with God.
Have not submitted to the righteousness of God — The way of justification which he hath fixed.
 For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth.
For Christ is the end of the law — The scope and aim of it. It is the very design of the law, to bring men to believe in Christ for justification and salvation. And he alone gives that pardon and life which the law shows the want of, but cannot give.
To every one — Whether Jew or gentile, treated of, Romans 10:11, etc.
That believeth — Treated of, Romans 10:5.
 For Moses describeth the righteousness which is of the law, That the man which doeth those things shall live by them.
For Moses describeth the only righteousness which is attainable by the law, when he saith, The man who doeth these things shall live by them - that is, he that perfectly keeps all these precepts in every point, he alone may claim life and salvation by them. But this way of justification is impossible to any who have ever transgressed any one law in any point. Leviticus 18:5
 But the righteousness which is of faith speaketh on this wise, Say not in thine heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? (that is, to bring Christ down from above:)
But the righteousness which is by faith — The method of becoming righteous by believing. Speaketh a very different language, and may be considered as expressing itself thus: (to accommodate to our present subject the words which Moses spake, touching the plainness of his law:) Say not in thy heart, Who shall ascend into heaven, as if it were to bring Christ down: or, Who shall descend into the grave, as if it were to bring him again from the dead - Do not imagine that these things are to be done now, in order to procure thy pardon and salvation. Deuteronomy 30:14.
 But what saith it? The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart: that is, the word of faith, which we preach;
But what saith he — Moses. Even these words, so remarkably applicable to the subject before us. All is done ready to thy hand.
The word is nigh thee — Within thy reach; easy to be understood, remembered, practised. This is eminently true of the word of faith - The gospel.
Which we preach — The sum of which is, If thy heart believe in Christ, and thy life confess him, thou shalt be saved.
 That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved.
If thou confess with thy mouth — Even in time of persecution, when such a confession may send thee to the lions.
 For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation.
For with the heart — Not the understanding only.
Man believeth to righteousness — So as to obtain justification.
And with the mouth confession is made — So as to obtain final salvation. Confession here implies the whole of outward, as believing does the root of all inward, religion.
 For the scripture saith, Whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed.
 For there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek: for the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him.
The same Lord of all is rich — So that his blessings are never to be exhausted, nor is he ever constrained to hold his hand. The great truth proposed in Romans 10:11 is so repeated here, and in Romans 10:13, and farther confirmed, Romans 10:14,15, as not only to imply, that "whosoever calleth upon him shall be saved;" but also that the will of God is, that all should savingly call upon him.
 For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.
 And how shall they preach, except they be sent? as it is written, How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things!
But how shall they preach, unless they be sent — Thus by a chain of reasoning, from God's will that the gentiles also should "call upon him," St. Paul infers that the apostles were sent by God to preach to the gentiles also.
The feet — Their very footsteps; their coming. Isaiah 52:7.
 But they have not all obeyed the gospel. For Esaias saith, Lord, who hath believed our report
 So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.
Faith, indeed, ordinarily cometh by hearing; even by hearing the word of God.
 But I say, Have they not heard? Yes verily, their sound went into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world.
But their unbelief was not owing to the want of hearing For they have heard. Yes verily - So many nations have already heard the preachers of the gospel, that I may in some sense say of them as David did of the lights of heaven. Psalms 29:4
 But I say, Did not Israel know? First Moses saith, I will provoke you to jealousy by them that are no people, and by a foolish nation I will anger you.
But hath not Israel known — They might have known, even from Moses and Isaiah, that many of the gentiles would be received, and many of the Jews rejected.
I will provoke you to jealousy by them that are not a nation — As they followed gods that were not gods, so he accepted in their stead a nation that was not a nation; that is, a nation that was not in covenant with God.
A foolish nation — Such are all which know not God. Deuteronomy 32:21
 But Esaias is very bold, and saith, I was found of them that sought me not; I was made manifest unto them that asked not after me.
But Isaiah is very bold — And speaks plainly what Moses but intimated. Isaiah 65:1,2.
 But to Israel he saith, All day long I have stretched forth my hands unto a disobedient and gainsaying people.
An unbelieving and gainsaying people — Just opposite to those who believed with their hearts, and made confession with their mouths.