1. Every wise, &c.--literally, "The wisdoms" (compare
"of women," plural, a distributive form of speech.
buildeth . . . house--increases wealth, which the foolish, by mismanagement, lessen.
2. uprightness--is the fruit of fearing God, as falsehood and ill-nature (Pr 2:15; 3:32) of despising Him and His law.
3. rod of pride--that is, the punishment of pride, which they evince by their words. The words of the wise procure good to them.
5. A faithful witness, &c.--one tested to be such.
utter lies--or, "breathe out lies"--that is, habitually lies (Pr 6:19; compare Ac 9:1). Or the sense is, that habitual truthfulness, or lying, will be evinced in witness-bearing.
6. An humble, teachable spirit succeeds in seeking (Pr 8:9; Joh 7:17; Jas 1:5, 6).
7. Avoid the society of those who cannot teach you.
8. Appearances deceive the thoughtless, but the prudent discriminate.
9. Fools make a mock at sin--or, "Sin deludes fools."
righteous . . . favour--that is, of God, instead of the punishment of sin.
10. Each one best knows his own sorrows or joys.
11. (Compare Pr 12:7). The contrast of the whole is enhanced by that of house and tabernacle, a permanent and a temporary dwelling.
12. end thereof--or, "reward," what results (compare
ways of death--leading to it.
13. The preceding sentiment illustrated by the disappointments of a wicked or untimely joy.
14. filled . . . ways--receive retribution
a good man . . . himself--literally, "is away from such," will not associate with him.
15. The simple . . . word--He is credulous, not from love, but heedlessness (Pr 13:16).
Pr 3:7; 28:14).
rageth--acts proudly and conceitedly.
17. He . . . angry--literally, "short of anger" (compare
man . . . hated--that is, the deliberate evildoer is more hated than the rash.
18. inherit--as a portion (compare
are crowned--literally, "are surrounded with it," abound in it.
19. Describes the humbling of the wicked by the punishment their sins incur.
20. This sad but true picture of human nature is not given approvingly, but only as a fact.
21. For such contempt of the poor is contrasted as sinful with the virtuous compassion of the good.
22. As usual, the interrogative negative strengthens the affirmative.
mercy and truth--that is, God's (Ps 57:3; 61:7).
23. labour--painful diligence.
talk . . . penury--idle and vain promises and plans.
foolishness . . . folly--Folly remains, or produces folly; it has no benefit.
25. Life often depends on truth-telling.
a deceitful . . . lies--He that breathes out lies is deceit, not to be trusted (Pr 14:5).
26. The blessings of piety descend to children (Pr 13:22; 20:7; Ex 20:6).
28. The teaching of a true political economy.
30. A sound heart--both literally and figuratively, a source of health; in the latter sense, opposed to the known effect of evil passions on health.
33. resteth--preserved in quietness for use, while fools blazon their folly (Pr 12:23; 13:16).
34. Righteousness--just principles and actions.
exalteth--raises to honor.
is a reproach--brings on them the ill-will of others (compare Pr 13:6).
35. wise--discreet or prudent.
causeth shame-- (Pr 10:5; 12:4) acts basely.