The nineteenth century is sometimes called the Protestant Century. Protestants established missions throughout the world. Organizations such as the British and Foreign Bible Society, the American Bible Society, the Sunday School Union, and the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions lead in the spread of the Gospel message. Reform societies form to deal with abolition, temperance, prisons, and education.
• In America, many sects including Mormons, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Christian Science are established.
• New philosophies such as Darwin's evolution, Marx's communism, and Freud's psychology, attack the traditional Christian view of life and history. German "higher critics" attack the historical validity of the Scriptures.
• Revival leader Charles Finney establishes "new measures" in his revival meetings, believing conversions can be achieved if the right approaches and techniques are used.
• Dwight L. Moody and Ira Sankey hold large revival meetings on both sides of the Atlantic, while thousands hear Charles Spurgeon preach in London's Tabernacle.
• Fanny Crosby, Ira Sankey, Francis Havergal, and others poured out hymns of faith and devotion.
• David Livingstone and others open the African continent to missions, while workers with Hudson Taylor's China Inland Mission spread throughout China.
• Pope Pius IX condemns liberalism, socialism, and rationalism; also proclaims the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary. The First Vatican Council declares the Pope infallible in the year 1870.