Events 1-25

64
Fire ravages Rome. Emperor Nero blames Christians and unleashes persecution.

70
Titus destroys Jerusalem and its temple. Separation deepens between Christianity and Judaism.

about 150
Justin Martyr writes his First Apology, advancing Christian efforts to address competing philosophies.

about 156
Polycarp, an eighty-six-year-old bishop, inspires Christians to stand firm under opposition.

177
Irenaeus becomes bishop of Lyons and combats developing heresies within the Church.

about 196
Colorful and cantankerous Tertullian begins writings that earn him the reputation of being the "Father of Latin Theology."

about 205
The gifted North African Origen begins writing. He headed a noted catechetical school in Alexandria.

251
Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, publishes his influential work Unity of the Church. He was martyred in 258.

270
Antony gives away his possessions and begins life as a hermit, a key event in the development of Christian monasticism.

312
Constantine is converted after seeing a vision of the cross. He becomes a defender and advocate of the oppressed Christians.

325
The Council of Nicea addresses debates perplexing the Church and defines the doctrine of who Jesus really was.

367
Athanasius' Easter Letter recognizes the New Testament Canon, listing the same books we have now.

385
In Milan, Bishop Ambrose defies the Empress, helping establish the precedent of Church confrontation of the state when necessary to protect Christian teaching and oppose the state.

387
Augustine of Hippo is converted. His writings became bedrock for the Middle Ages. The Confessions and City of God are still read by many.

398
John Chrysostom, the "golden tongued" preacher is made bishop of Constantinople and leads from there amidst continuing controversies.

405
Jerome completes the Latin "Vulgate" version of the bible that becomes the standard for the next one thousand years.

432
Patrick goes as a missionary to Ireland--taken there as a teenager as a slave. He returns and leads multitudes of Irish people to the Christian faith.

451
The Council of Chalcedon confirms orthodox teaching that Jesus was truly God and truly man and existed in one person.

529
Benedict of Nursia establishes his monastic order. His "rule" becomes the most influential for centuries of monasticism in the West.

563
Columba goes as a missionary to Scotland. He establishes the legendary monastic mission center at Iona.

590
Gregory becomes Pope Gregory I, known as "the Great." His leadership significantly advances the development of the papacy and has enormous influence on Europe.

664
Synod of Whitby determines that the English church will come under the authority of Rome.

716
Boniface, the "Apostle of Germany," sets out as a missionary to bring the gospel to pagan lands.

731
The "Venerable" Bede completes his careful and influential Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation.

732
At the Battle of Tours, Charles Martel turns back the Muslim invasion of Europe.

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