12th Century

Gothic architecture, with its pointed arches and high, vaulted ceilings prevails in church building.

• 1182--Notre Dame Cathedral consecrated

• 1194--Chartres Cathedral begun

• The medieval papacy, at the height of its power and influence, continues to encourage crusades to liberate the Holy Land from the Moslems.

• 1104--Acre taken by the Crusaders, fell to Moslems again in 1191

• 1147--Second Crusade (supported by Bernard of Clairvaux) fails, with most Crusaders dying in Asia Minor.

• 1187--Loss of Jerusalem by the Crusaders

• 1190--German Hospitalers founded (later becoming the Teutonic Order)

• Belief in immaculate conception of Mary spreads.

• 1170--Pope Alexander III established rules for the canonization of saints, the same year Thomas Becket is murdered in England. Becket is canonized in 1173.

• 1173--Waldensian movement begins in Lyons, seeking truth in Bible rather than medieval tradition. The church persecutes these devout believers sometimes seen as predecessors of Protestant reform.

• Monasticism continues to be main source of reforming church.

• 1115--St. Bernard establishes monastery at Clairvaux. He will become the "greatest churchman of the 12th century."

• 1155--Carmelite Order founded