10th Century

Christianity continues to spread among the peoples of eastern Europe during this century.

• To the east, Hungarians and Poles begin to convert to Christianity, and Christianity reaches Iceland and Greenland to the west.

• Ecclesiastical leaders were increasingly becoming embroiled in the political struggles of the European continent.

• Benedictine monastery established 909 at Cluny; becomes the center of a reform movement for the church to rid itself of the increasing secularization of its institutions and practices.

• Bohemian people embrace Christianity, but their "Good King [Duke] Wenceslaus" is soon murdered c. 929 by opposing pagan rivals.

• 988--Vladimir, sole ruler of Kievan Rus is baptized. There people were baptized at Pentecost. That same year Vladimir married Princess Anna, sister of Basil II, Emperor of Byzantium.

• Otto the Great (emperor 936-973) revives Charlemagne's dream of a Holy Roman Empire among the German people. In some form Otto's empire continues until the time of Napoleon.

• 993--Saints begin to be officially canonized by the Roman church.

• Private confession develops from public confession in both Eastern and Western Churches. The Roman Church begins the concept of indulgences. (No sure evidence of this before the 11th century.)

• Papacy reaches a low point in morality.

• As the year 1000 approaches, many fear the end of the world and the Last Judgment.