- Heb. 'ez, the she-goat (Genesis 15:9; 30:35; 31:38). This Hebrew word is also used for the he-goat (Exodus 12:5; Leviticus 4:23; Numbers 28:15), and to denote a kid (Genesis 38:17,20). Hence it may be regarded as the generic name of the animal as domesticated. It literally means "strength," and points to the superior strength of the goat as compared with the sheep.
- Heb. 'attud, only in plural; rendered "rams" (Genesis 31:10,12); he-goats (Numbers 7:17-88; Isaiah 1:11); goats (Deuteronomy 32:14; Psalm 50:13). They were used in sacrifice (Psalm 66:15). This word is used metaphorically for princes or chiefs in Isaiah 14:9, and in Zechariah 10:3 as leaders. (Comp. Jeremiah 50:8.)
- Heb. gedi, properly a kid. Its flesh was a delicacy among the Hebrews (Genesis 27:9,14,17; Judges 6:19).
- Heb. sa'ir, meaning the "shaggy," a hairy goat, a he-goat (2 Chronicles 29:23); "a goat" (Leviticus 4:24); "satyr" (Isaiah 13:21); "devils" (Leviticus 17:7). It is the goat of the sin-offering (Leviticus 9:3,15; 10:16).
- Heb. tsaphir, a he-goat of the goats (2 Chronicles 29:21). In Daniel 8:5,8 it is used as a symbol of the Macedonian empire.
- Heb. tayish, a "striker" or "butter," rendered "he-goat" (Genesis 30:35; 32:14).
- Heb. 'azazel (which see), the "scapegoat" (Leviticus 16:8,10,26).
- There are two Hebrew words used to denote the undomesticated goat:, Yael, only in plural mountain goats (1 Samuel 24:2; Job 39:1; Ps.104:18). It is derived from a word meaning "to climb." It is the ibex, which abounded in the mountainous parts of Moab. And 'akko, only in Deuteronomy 14:5, the wild goat.
Goats are mentioned in the New Testament in Matthew 25:32,33; Hebrews 9:12,13,19; 10:4. They represent oppressors and wicked men (Ezekiel 34:17; 39:18; Matthew 25:33).
Several varieties of the goat were familiar to the Hebrews. They had an important place in their rural economy on account of the milk they afforded and the excellency of the flesh of the kid. They formed an important part of pastoral wealth (Genesis 31:10,12; 32:14; 1 Samuel 25:2).