Over the weekend, the US paused to remember those whose lives were lost so tragically in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Adding fuel to the growing fires of public debate over the role of religion in public life, New York mayor Michael Bloomberg announced his decision not to include prayers for the official event.
Theory is tested in specific cases, and this was one more opportunity to wrestle with a larger question. It's one thing when a political leader has to choose a clerical representative out of an array of Christian denominations. Today, however, representing the religious diversity of the Republic in public ceremonies is more complicated.
On one hand, this is a constitutional issue. Especially given the history of civil religion in America, it's implausible to imagine that the nation's founders ever intended anything like the separation of religion and public life that the mantra "separation of church and state" has come to embody. On the other hand, it is a theological issue. In other words, even if Mayor Bloomberg has no constitutional reason to avoid the liturgical interjections in public commemorations that were included by his predecessor, the debate returns us to a recurring question of decisive importance to Christians. It's not a question of whether prayer at public occasions of this kind is sanctioned by our Constitution, but, for Christians at least, whether we can participate in (much less encourage) such acts of "non-sectarian" worship.
In a recent USA Today opinion piece, Jay Sekulow, a Christian activist and chief counsel for the American Center for Law and Justice, reproved Mayor Bloomberg for his decision (see the piece here). Recounting the history of national days of prayer, including the inter-religious "Prayer for America" event at Yankee Stadium in the aftermath of 9/11, Mr. Sekulow's call betrays assumptions about prayer that, in my view, can only trivialize this sacred act in the long run.
Nowhere in Mr. Sekulow's article is prayer defined in its vertical relation, as an act of worship directed to a particular deity-much less, through a particular mediator. Rather, the therapeutic idiom takes over. At least in the public argument, the idea is that prayer's value lies in its subjective effect. The references are to "the many Americans who find solace and healing in prayer," helping victims and their families "cope with the lost of loved ones."
Beyond individual solace, such civil demonstrations of piety serve a therapeutic function for the nation as a whole, echoing the romantic nineteenth-century idea of a "national soul." "In the days following 9/11, prayer was an integral part of the grieving process. Thousands attended the ‘Prayer for America' event at Yankee Stadium, where representatives of many faiths offered prayers. It was an event that united, not divided, Americans."
As the matter was put by another critic of the mayor's decision, "Prayer is not always about religion, it is instead often about relief and repose."
But all of this presses the question: Is the purpose of prayer mainly therapeutic: personal and national catharsis? Is it basically horizontal-human-centered (whether in individual or national images)? Or is it a solemn act of "calling on the name of the LORD" (i.e., Yahweh, the Father of Jesus Christ)? Does such an act have a personal object? Is that personal object the God who is revealed in Scripture as the Holy Trinity? Is the prayer directed to the Father, through the mediation of the incarnate Son, in the power of the Holy Spirit by whom we confess "Jesus as Lord"?
Imagine Elijah calling for a revival by trying to negotiate a public prayer or perhaps series of public prayers led by the prophets of Baal and the prophets of Yahweh. Israel, after all, has always been a religious nation. Isn't it more important for the nation to acknowledge its piety than to become too obsessed with the theological specifics? The nation was divided, after all, and the point is to bring the people together through prayer, to bring them consolation in the face of national disaster. Of course, this isn't how the story plays out at Mount Carmel, as the God of Israel proved that he alone is God and Baal is a helpless idol.
We don't live under the old covenant, driving the prophets of Baal through with the sword. Rather, we have the privilege of religious freedom for true and false worship in this country. Nevertheless, we do not expect the state to create opportunities for the advance of Christ's kingdom through his means of grace.
It is in churches where we confess our sins and our faith in Christ as he is clothed in the gospel. Here, we gather as a communion of saints gathered "from every tribe, tongue, people and nation" (Revelation 5:9), not as a modern nation-state. We call upon the name of the LORD, which is none other than Jesus Christ, not merely for therapeutic consolation in our troubles (though this aspect is included), but for salvation from the guilt and tyranny of sin and the death penalty that it imposes. Here, with our brothers and sisters and before the face of the Triune God, our prayers acknowledge God's justice in our condemnation and joy in God's grace to us in his Son. With Christ as our Mediator, we are free to enter the Father's presence with boldness, interceding for ourselves and for others, for needs pertaining to body and soul.
Prayer is also an act of witness. What are we testifying to when we seek state acts of generic devotion to the Unknown God? To what-or whom-are we witnessing when we give the impression that people can find consolation from any "God" apart from the Father who is known only in his Son and is otherwise a judge who will not let sinners go unpunished? True prayer arises as a Spirit-given response to the Word that proclaims God's righteous judgment and gracious forgiveness in Jesus Christ.
Doubtless, such an approach will offend on all sides. Secularists will level the charge of bigotry at those who deny everlasting consolation to victims of horrific tragedies apart from Christ. Those who seek to hold on to the last vestiges of civil religion will scold fellow Christians who insist on the scandalous particularity of the gospel-in effect, surrendering the public square to secularists.
However, Christianity at its best is always an odd sect in a world of idolatry and superstition. The power lies not in its ability to negotiate general piety for a national soul, but in its most particular and offensive message: the gospel of Christ. We don't evacuate the public square that we share with our neighbors-even the "prophets of Baal." Rather, we testify there that Christ alone is Lord, that he alone has conquered death and hell, that our greatest terror and consolation have to do with headlines much more serious and all-encompassing than the genuine tragedy of 9/11. We don't need Mayor Bloomberg to help us with that. In fact, in the very act of doing so, we have to surrender the most important things we are called to say.
It is precisely because God is more important than we are, sin is much greater than something that others do to us, redemption is far greater than therapeutic consolation, and love for our neighbors encourages us to proclaim the everlasting consolation of the gospel, that we dare not trivialize that dangerous, wonderful and absolutely effective act of calling on the name of the Lord in life and in death.
For further reading from our friends:
Carl Trueman reminds the SBC why they should be pleased they aren't invited to the "National Cathedral" on 9/11:
a lesson from marx for the sbc
Bill Cwirla reflects on religion and 9/11:
no clergy at ground zero
Michael Horton is the president of White Horse Inn, a multi-media catalyst for Reformation. He is editor-in-chief of modern reformation magazine and co-host of the nationwide radio broadcast, white horse inn. His books include The Christian Faith, Christless Christianity, and The Gospel-Driven Life. Dr. Horton is also the J. Gresham Machen Professor of Systematic Theology and Apologetics at Westminster Seminary California. He serves as the associate pastor of Christ United Reformed Church in Santee, California, and lives in Escondido, California, with his wife Lisa and four children. This article first appeared here on the blog of White Horse Inn. All rights reserved. Used by permission.