Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea;
Now — That ye may not become reprobates, consider how highly favoured your fathers were, who were God's elect and peculiar people, and nevertheless were rejected by him. They were all under the cloud - That eminent token of God's gracious presence, which screened them from the heat of the sun by day, and gave them light by night.
 And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea;
And were all, as it were, baptized unto Moses - initiated into the religion which he taught them.
In the cloud and in the sea — Perhaps sprinkled here and there with drops of water from the sea or the cloud, by which baptism might be the more evidently signified.
 And did all eat the same spiritual meat;
And all ate the same manna, termed spiritual meat, as it was typical, 1. Of Christ and his spiritual benefits: 2. Of the sacred bread which we eat at his table. Exodus 16:15.
 And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ.
And all drank the same spiritual drink — Typical of Christ, and of that cup which we drink. For they drank out of the spiritual or mysterious rock, the wonderful streams of which followed them in their several journeyings, for many years, through the wilderness. And that rock was a manifest type of Christ - The Rock of Eternity, from whom his people derive those streams of blessings which follow them through all this wilderness. Exodus 17:6.
 But with many of them God was not well pleased: for they were overthrown in the wilderness.
Yet — Although they had so many tokens of the divine presence.
They were overthrown — With the most terrible marks of his displeasure.
 Now these things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted.
Now these things were our examples — Showing what we are to expect if, enjoying the like benefits, we commit the like sins. The benefits are set down in the same order as by Moses in Exodus; the sins and punishments in a different order; evil desire first, as being the foundation of all; next, idolatry, 1 Corinthians 10:7,14; then fornication, which usually accompanied it, 1 Corinthians 10:8; the tempting and murmuring against God, in the following verses.
As they desired — Flesh, in contempt of manna. Numbers 11:4
 Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them; as it is written, The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.
Neither be ye idolaters — And so, "neither murmur ye," 1 Corinthians 10:10. The other cautions are given in the first person; but these in the second. And with what exquisite propriety does he vary the person! It would have been improper to say, Neither let us be idolaters; for he was himself in no danger of idolatry; nor probably of murmuring against Christ, or the divine providence.
To play — That is, to dance, in honour of their idol. Exodus 32:6.
 Neither let us commit fornication, as some of them committed, and fell in one day three and twenty thousand.
And fell in one day three and twenty thousand — Beside the princes who were afterwards hanged, and those whom the judges slew so that there died in all four and twenty thousand. Numbers 25:1,9.
 Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents.
Neither let us tempt Christ — By our unbelief. St. Paul enumerates five benefits, 1 Corinthians 10:1-4; of which the fourth and fifth were closely connected together; and five sins, the fourth and fifth of which were likewise closely connected. In speaking of the fifth benefit, he expressly mentions Christ; and in speaking of the fourth sin, he shows it was committed against Christ.
As some of them tempted him — This sin of the people was peculiarly against Christ; for when they had so long drank of that rock, yet they murmured for want of water. Numbers 21:4, etc.
 Neither murmur ye, as some of them also murmured, and were destroyed of the destroyer.
The destroyer — The destroying angel. Numbers 14:1,36
 Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come.
On whom the ends of the ages are come — The expression has great force. All things meet together, and come to a crisis, under the last, the gospel, dispensation; both benefits and dangers, punishments and rewards. It remains, that Christ come as an avenger and judge. And even these ends include various periods, succeeding each other.
 Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall.
The common translation runs, Let him that thinketh he standeth; but the word translated thinketh, most certainly strengthens, rather than weakens, the sense.
 There hath no temptation taken you but such as is common to man: but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it.
Common to man — Or, as the Greek word imports, proportioned to human strength.
God is faithful — In giving the help which he hath promised.
And he will with the temptation — Provide for your deliverance.
 Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee from idolatry.
Flee from idolatry — And from all approaches to it.
 The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?
The cup which we bless — By setting it apart to a sacred use, and solemnly invoking the blessing of God upon it.
Is it not the communion of the blood of Christ — The means of our partaking of those invaluable benefits, which are the purchase of the blood of Christ. The communion of the body of Christ - The means of our partaking of those benefits which were purchased by the body of Christ - offered for us.
 For we being many are one bread, and one body: for we are all partakers of that one bread.
For it is this communion which makes us all one. We being many are yet, as it were, but different parts of one and the same broken bread, which we receive to unite us in one body.
 Behold Israel after the flesh: are not they which eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar?
Consider Israel after the flesh — Christians are the spiritual "Israel of God." Are not they who eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar - Is not this an act of communion with that God to whom they are offered? And is not the case the same with those who eat of the sacrifices which have been offered to idols?
 What say I then? that the idol is any thing, or that which is offered in sacrifice to idols is any thing?
What say I then — Do I in saying this allow that an idol is anything divine? I aver, on the contrary, that what the heathens sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils. Such in reality are the gods of the heathens; and with such only can you hold communion in those sacrifices.
 Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and of the table of devils.
Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils — You cannot have communion with both.
 Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? are we stronger than he?
Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy — By thus caressing his rivals? Are we stronger than he - Are we able to resist, or to bear his wrath?
 All things are lawful for me, but all things are not expedient: all things are lawful for me, but all things edify not.
Supposing this were lawful in itself, yet it is not expedient, it is not edifying to my neighbour.
 Let no man seek his own, but every man another's wealth.
His own only, but another's welfare also.
 Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, that eat, asking no question for conscience sake:
The apostle now applies this principle to the point in question.
Asking no questions — Whether it has been sacrificed or not.
 For the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof.
For God, who is the Creator, Proprietor, and Disposer of the earth and all that is therein, hath given the produce of it to the children of men, to be used without scruple. Psalms 24:1
 But if any man say unto you, This is offered in sacrifice unto idols, eat not for his sake that shewed it, and for conscience sake: for the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof:
For his sake that showed thee, and for conscience' sake — That is, for the sake of his weak conscience, lest it should be wounded.
 Conscience, I say, not thine own, but of the other: for why is my liberty judged of another man's conscience?
Conscience I say, not thy own — I speak of his conscience, not thine.
For why is my liberty judged by another's conscience — Another's conscience is not the standard of mine, nor is another's persuasion the measure of my liberty.
 For if I by grace be a partaker, why am I evil spoken of for that for which I give thanks?
If I by grace am a partaker — If I thankfully use the common blessings of God.
 Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God.
Therefore — To close the present point with a general rule, applicable not only in this, but in all cases, Whatsoever ye do - In all things whatsoever, whether of a religious or civil nature, in all the common, as well as sacred, actions of life, keep the glory of God in view, and steadily pursue in all this one end of your being, the planting or advancing the vital knowledge and love of God, first in your own soul, then in all mankind.
 Give none offence, neither to the Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God:
Give no offence — If, and as far as, it is possible.
 Even as I please all men in all things, not seeking mine own profit, but the profit of many, that they may be saved.
Even as I, as much as lieth in me, please all men.