1. servant of Jesus Christ--as His minister and apostle.
brother of James--who was more widely known as bishop of Jerusalem and "brother of the Lord" (that is, either cousin, or stepbrother, being son of Joseph by a former marriage; for ancient traditions universally agree that Mary, Jesus' mother, continued perpetually a virgin). Jude therefore calls himself modestly "brother of James."
to them . . . sanctified by God the Father--The oldest manuscripts and versions, ORIGEN, LUCIFER, and others read, "beloved" for sanctified. If English Version be read, compare Colossians 1:12; 1 Peter 1:2 Father's love is the element IN which they are "beloved." Thus the conclusion, Jude 1:21 love of God." Compare "beloved of the Lord" 2 Thessalonians 2:13
preserved in Jesus Christ--"kept." Translate not "in," but as Greek, "FOR Jesus Christ." "Kept continually (so the Greek perfect participle means) by God the Father for Jesus Christ," against the day of His coming. Jude, beforehand, mentions the source and guarantee for the final accomplishment of believers' salvation; lest they should be disheartened by the dreadful evils which he proceeds to announce [BENGEL].
and called--predicated of "them that are beloved in God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ: who are called." God's effectual calling in the exercise of His divine prerogative, guarantees their eternal safety.
2. Mercy--in a time of wretchedness. Therefore mercy stands
first; the mercy of Christ (Jude
peace--in the Holy Ghost (Jude 1:20
love--of God (Jude 1:21 Trinity.
be multiplied--in you and towards you.
3. Design of the Epistle (compare Jude
all diligence--(2 Peter 1:5 all diligence to admonish, so the people should, in accordance with his admonition, give all diligence to have all Christian graces, and to make their calling sure.
the common salvation--wrought by Christ. Compare Note, "obtained LIKE precious faith," This community of faith, and of the object of faith, salvation, forms the ground of mutual exhortation by appeals to common hopes and fears.
it was needful for me--rather, "I felt it necessary to write (now at once; so the Greek aorist means; the present infinitive 'to write,' which precedes, expresses merely the general fact of writing) exhorting you." The reason why he felt it necessary "to write with exhortation," he states, Jude 1:4 men crept in," &c. Having intended to write generally of "the common salvation," he found it necessary from the existing evils in the Church, to write specially that they should contend for the faith against those evils.
earnestly contend--Compare Philippians 1:27 faith of the Gospel."
once, &c.--Greek, "once for all delivered." No other faith or revelation is to supersede it. A strong argument for resisting heretical innovators (Jude 1:4 (Nehemiah 4:17 faith"; with the other they" contend earnestly for the faith" against its foes.
the saints--all Christians, holy (that is, consecrated to God) by their calling, and in God's design.
4. certain men--implying disparagement.
crept in unawares--stealthily and unlawfully. "privily shall bring in damnable heresies."
before . . . ordained--Greek, "forewritten," namely, in Peter's prophecy Jude 1:17,18 1 Timothy 4:1; 2 Timothy 3:1 the apostate angels. The disobedient Israelites, Sodom and Gomorrah, Balaam and Core, and which are written "for an example" (Jude 1:7 and Jude 1:5,6,11 as set forth in Scripture "of old," is the ground on which such apostate characters are ordained to condemnation. Scripture is the reflection of God's book of life in which believers are "written among the living." "Forewritten" is applied also in Romans 15:4 Scripture. Scripture itself reflects God's character from everlasting, which is the ground of His decrees from everlasting. BENGEL explains it as an abbreviated phrase for, "They were of old foretold by Enoch (Jude 1:14 marked out by the written word."
to this condemnation--Jude graphically puts their judgment as it were present before the eyes, "THIS." Enoch's prophecy comprises the "ungodly men" of the last days before Christ's coming to judgment, as well as their forerunners, the "ungodly men" before the flood, the type of the last judgment (Matthew 24:37-39; 2 Peter 3:3-7 the doom of both correspond.
the grace of our God--A phrase for the Gospel especially sweet to believers who appropriate God in Christ as "our God," and so rendering the more odious the vile perversity of those who turn the Gospel state of grace and liberty into a ground of licentiousness, as if their exemption from the law gave them a license to sin.
denying the only Lord--The oldest manuscripts, versions, and Fathers omit "God," which follows in English Version. Translate as the Greek, "the only Master"; here used of Jesus Christ, who is at once Master and "Lord" (a different Greek word). By virtue of Christ's perfect oneness with the Father, He, as well as the Father, is termed "the ONLY" God and "MASTER." Greek, "Master," implies God's absolute ownership to dispose of His creatures as He likes.
therefore--Other oldest manuscripts and Vulgate read, "But"; in contrast to the ungodly Jude 1:4
though ye once--rather, "once for all." Translate, "I wish to remind you, as knowing ALL (namely, that I am referring to; so the oldest manuscripts, versions, and Fathers) once for all." As already they know all the facts once for all, he needs only to "remind" them.
the Lord--The oldest manuscripts and versions read, "Jesus." So "Christ" is said to have accompanied the Israelites in the wilderness; so perfectly is Jesus one with the God of the Israelite theocracy.
saved--brought safely, and into a state of safety and salvation.
afterward--Greek, "secondly"; in the next instance "destroyed them that believed not," as contrasted with His in the first instance having saved them.
6. (2 Peter
kept not their first estate--Vulgate translates, "their own principality," which the fact of angels being elsewhere called "principalities," favors: "their own" implies that, instead of being content with the dignity once for all assigned to them under the Son of God, they aspired higher. ALFORD thinks the narrative in Genesis 6:2 is alluded to, not the fall of the devil and his angels, as he thinks "giving themselves over to fornication" (Jude 1:7 Greek, "in like manner to these," namely, to the angels (Jude 1:6 (Genesis 6:2 seem capable of carnal connection. The parallel, 2 Peter 2:4 refers to the fall of the apostate angels. And "in like manner to these," Jude 1:7 the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah, "the cities about them" sinning "in like manner" as "they" did [ESTIUS and CALVIN]. Even if Greek "these," Jude 1:7 "in like manner as these" will be, not that the angels carnally fornicated with the daughters of men, but that their ambition, whereby their affections went away from God and they fell, is in God's view a sin of like kind spiritually as Sodom's going away from God's order of nature after strange flesh; the sin of the apostate angels after their kind is analogous to that of the human Sodomites after their kind. Compare the somewhat similar spiritual connection of whoremongers and covetousness. The apocryphal book of Enoch interprets Genesis 6:2 some particulars, it does not follow that he accords with it in all. The Hebrews name the fallen angels Aza and Azael.
left--on their own accord.
their own--Greek, "their proper."
habitation--heaven, all bright and glorious, as opposed to the "darkness" to which they now are doomed. Their ambitious designs seem to have had a peculiar connection with this earth, of which Satan before his fall may have been God's vicegerent, whence arises his subsequent connection with it as first the Tempter, then "the prince of this world."
reserved--As the Greek is the same, and there is an evident reference to their having "kept not their first estate," translate, "He hath kept." Probably what is meant is, He hath kept them in His purpose; that is their sure doom; moreover, as yet, Satan and his demons roam at large on the earth. An earnest of their doom is their having been cast out of heaven, being already restricted to "the darkness of this present world," the "air" that surrounds the earth, their peculiar element now. They lurk in places of gloom and death, looking forward with agonizing fear to their final torment in the bottomless pit. He means not literal chains and darkness, but figurative in this present world where, with restricted powers and liberties, shut out from heaven, they, like condemned prisoners, await their doom.
7. Even as--ALFORD translates, "I wish to remind you (Jude
Sodom, &c.--(2 Peter 2:6
giving themselves over to fornication--following fornication extraordinarily, that is, out of the order of nature. On "in like manner to them" (Greek), compare Note, Compare on spiritual fornication, "go a whoring from thee," Psalms 73:27
going after strange flesh--departing from the course of nature, and going after that which is unnatural. In later times the most enlightened heathen nations indulged in the sin of Sodom without compunction or shame.
are set forth--before our eyes.
suffering--undergoing to this present time; alluding to the marks of volcanic fire about the Dead Sea.
the vengeance--Greek, "righteous retribution."
eternal fire--The lasting marks of the fire that consumed the cities irreparably, is a type of the eternal fire to which the inhabitants have been consigned. BENGEL translates as the Greek will admit, "Suffering (the) punishment (which they endure) as an example or sample of eternal fire (namely, that which shall consume the wicked)." Ezekiel 16:53-55 is not eternal. Compare also 2 Peter 2:6
8. also--rather, "In like manner nevertheless"
(notwithstanding these warning examples) [ALFORD].
these . . . dreamers--The Greek has not "filthy" of English Version. The clause, "these men dreaming" (that is, in their dreams), belongs to all the verbs, "defile," "despise," and "speak evil." All sinners are spiritually asleep, and their carnal activity is as it were a dream (1 Thessalonians 5:6,7 know not what they are speaking evil of (Jude 1:10 dreaming seems to himself to be seeing and nearing many things, so the natural man's lusts are agitated by joy, distress, fear, and the other passions. But he is a stranger to self-command. Hence, though he bring into play all the powers of reason, he cannot conceive the true liberty which the sons of light, who are awake and in the daylight; enjoy" [BENGEL].
defile the flesh--(Jude 1:7
dignities--literally, "glories." Earthly and heavenly dignities.
9. Michael, the archangel--Nowhere in Scripture is the plural used,
"archangels"; but only ONE, "archangel." The only other
passage in the New Testament where it occurs, is 1 Thessalonians
4:16 distinguished from the archangel, with whose voice He shall descend to
raise the dead; they therefore err who confound Christ with Michael. The name
means, Who is like God? In Daniel
10:13 ('the first,' Margin) of the chief princes." He is
the champion angel of Israel. In Revelation
12:7 is again alluded to.
about the body of Moses--his literal body. Satan, as having the power of death, opposed the raising of it again, on the ground of Moses' sin at Meribah, and his murder of the Egyptian. That Moses' body was raised, appears from his presence with Elijah and Jesus (who were in the body) at the Transfiguration: the sample and earnest of the coming resurrection kingdom, to be ushered in by Michael's standing up for God's people. Thus in each dispensation a sample and pledge of the future resurrection was given: Enoch in the patriarchal dispensation, Moses in the Levitical, Elijah in the prophetical. It is noteworthy that the same rebuke is recorded here as was used by the Angel of the Lord, or Jehovah the Second Person, in pleading for Joshua, the representative of the Jewish Church, against Satan, in Zechariah 3:2 thought that also here "the body of Moses" means the Jewish Church accused by Satan, before God, for its filthiness, on which ground he demands that divine justice should take its course against Israel, but is rebuked by the Lord who has "chosen Jerusalem": thus, as "the body of Christ" is the Christian Church, so "the body of Moses" is the Jewish Church. But the literal body is evidently here meant (though, secondarily, the Jewish Church is typified by Moses' body, as it was there represented by Joshua the high priest); and Michael, whose connection seems to be so close with Jehovah-Messiah on the one hand, and with Israel on the other, naturally uses the same language as his Lord. As Satan (adversary in court) or the devil (accuser) accuses alike the Church collectively and "the brethren" individually, so Christ pleads for us as our Advocate. Israel's, and all believers' full justification, and the accuser's being rebuked finally, is yet future. JOSEPHUS [Antiquities,4.8], states that God hid Moses' body, lest, if it had been exposed to view, it would have been made an idol of. Jude, in this account, either adopts it from the apocryphal "assumption of Moses" (as ORIGEN [Concerning Principalities, 3.2] thinks), or else from the ancient tradition on which that work was founded. Jude, as inspired, could distinguish how much of the tradition was true, how much false. We have no such means of distinguishing, and therefore can be sure of no tradition, save that which is in the written word.
durst not--from reverence for Satan's former dignity (Jude 1:8
railing accusation--Greek, "judgment of blasphemy," or evil-speaking. Peter said, Angels do not, in order to avenge themselves, rail at dignities, though ungodly, when they have to contend with them: Jude says that the archangel Michael himself did not rail even at the time when he fought with the devil, the prince of evil spirits--not from fear of him, but from reverence of God, whose delegated power in this world Satan once had, and even in some degree still has. From the word "disputed," or debated in controversy, it is plain it was a judicial contest.
10. (2 Peter
those things which--Greek, "all things whatsoever they understand not," namely, the things of the spiritual world.
but what . . . naturally--Connect thus, "Whatever (so the Greek) things naturally (by natural, blind instinct), as the unreasoning (so the Greek) animals, they know," &c. The Greek for the former "know" implies deeper knowledge; the latter "know," the mere perception of the "animal senses and faculties."
Cain--the murderer: the root of whose sin was hatred and envy of the godly, as it is the sin of these seducers.
ran greedily--literally, "have been poured forth" like a torrent that has burst its banks. Reckless of what it costs, the loss of God's favor and heaven, on they rush after gain like Balaam.
perished in the gainsaying of Core--(compare Note, When we read of Korah perishing by gainsaying, we read virtually also of these perishing in like manner through the same: for the same seed bears the same harvest.
12. spots--So 2 Peter
2:13 Greek is spilades, which elsewhere, in secular writers,
means rocks, namely, on which the Christian love-feasts were in
danger of being shipwrecked. The oldest manuscript prefixes the article
emphatically, "THE rocks." The reference to "clouds . . .
winds . . . waves of the sea," accords with this image of rocks.
Vulgate seems to have been misled by the similar sounding word to translate,
as English Version, "spots"; compare however, Jude
1:23 favors English Version, if the Greek will bear it. Two
oldest manuscripts, by the transcriber's effort to make Jude say the same as
Peter, read here "deceivings" for "love-feasts," but the
weightiest manuscript and authorities support English Version reading.
The love-feast accompanied the Lord's Supper (1 Corinthians
11:17-34 the Levite, not satisfied with his ministry, aspired to the sacrificing
priesthood also: so ministers in the Lord's Supper have sought to make it a sacrifice,
and themselves the sacrificing priests, usurping the function of our only
Christian sacerdotal Priest, Christ Jesus. Let them beware of Korah's
feeding themselves--Greek, "pasturing (tending) themselves." What they look to is the pampering of themselves, not the feeding of the flock.
without fear--Join these words not as English Version, but with "feast." Sacred feasts especially ought to be celebrated with fear. Feasting is not faulty in itself [BENGEL], but it needs to be accompanied with fear of forgetting God, as Job in the case of his sons' feasts.
clouds--from which one would expect refreshing rains. 2 Peter 2:17 "wells without water." Professors without practice.
carried about--The oldest manuscripts have "carried aside," that is, out of the right course (compare Ephesians 4:14
trees whose fruit withereth--rather, "trees of the late (or waning) autumn," namely, when there are no longer leaves or fruits on the trees [BENGEL].
without fruit--having no good fruit of knowledge and practice; sometimes used of what is positively bad.
twice dead--First when they cast their leaves in autumn, and seem during winter dead, but revive again in spring; secondly, when they are "plucked up by the roots." So these apostates, once dead in unbelief, and then by profession and baptism raised from the death of sin to the life of righteousness, but now having become dead again by apostasy, and so hopelessly dead. There is a climax. Not only without leaves, like trees in late autumn, but without fruit: not only so, but dead twice; and to crown all, "plucked up by the roots."
13. Raging--wild. Jude has in mind Isaiah
shame--plural in Greek, "shames" (compare Philippians 3:19
wandering stars--instead of moving on in a regular orbit, as lights to the world, bursting forth on the world like erratic comets, or rather, meteors of fire, with a strange glare, and then doomed to fall back again into the blackness of gloom.
And Enoch--Greek, "Moreover, also Enoch," &c.
seventh from Adam--Seven is the sacred number. In Enoch, freedom from death and the sacred number are combined: for every seventh object is most highly valued. Jude thus shows the antiquity of the prophecies. Compare Note, only five fathers between Enoch and Adam. The seventh from Adam prophesied the things which shall close the seventh age of the world [BENGEL].
of these--in relation to these. The reference of his prophecies was not to the antediluvians alone, but to all the ungodly (Jude 1:15 ultimately to the final judgment.
cometh--literally, "came." Prophecy regards the future as certain as if it were past.
saints--Holy angels (compare Deuteronomy 33:2; Daniel 7:10; Zechariah 14:5; Matthew 25:31; Hebrews 12:22
15. This verse and the beginning of Enoch's prophecy is composed in Hebrew
poetic parallelism, the oldest specimen extant. Some think Lamech's speech,
which is also in poetic parallelism, was composed in mockery of Enoch's
prophecy: as Enoch foretold Jehovah's coming to judgment, so Lamech presumes on
impunity in polygamy and murder (just as Cain the murderer seemed to escape with
hard speeches--such as are noticed in Jude 1:8,10,16; Malachi 3:13,14
ungodly sinners--not merely sinners, but proud despisers of God: impious.
against him--They who speak against God's children are regarded by God as speaking against Himself.
16. murmurers--in secret: muttering murmurs against God's
ordinances and ministers in Church and state. Compare Jude
1:8 "speak evil of dignities"; Jude
complainers--never satisfied with their lot (Numbers 11:1 the penalty, Deuteronomy 28:47,48
walking after their own lusts--(Jude 1:18 murmuring and complaining is the restless insatiability of their desires.
great swelling words--(2 Peter 2:18
men's persons--their mere outward appearance and rank.
because of advantage--for the sake of what they may gain from them. While they talk great swelling words, they are really mean and fawning towards those of wealth and rank.
17. But; beloved . . . ye--in contrast to those reprobates, Jude
remember--implying that his readers had been contemporaries of the apostles. For Peter uses the very same formula in reminding the contemporaries of himself and the other apostles.
spoken before--spoken already before now.
the apostles--Peter and Paul before Peter (Acts 20:29; 1 Timothy 4:1; 2 Timothy 3:1 number of the apostles here, for in Jude 1:18 after, he says, "they told You," not us (rather as Greek, "used to tell you" implying that Jude's readers were contemporaries of the apostles, who used to tell them).
18. mockers--In the parallel, 2 Peter
3:3 translated, "scoffers." The word is found nowhere else in the
New Testament. How ALFORD can deny that 2 Peter
3:2,3 least in part), I cannot imagine, seeing that Jude quotes the very
words of Peter as the words which the apostles used to speak to
his (Jude's) readers.
walk after their own ungodly lusts--literally, "after (according to) their own lusts of ungodliness."
19. These be they--showing that their characters are such as Peter and
Paul had foretold.
separate themselves--from Church communion in its vital, spiritual reality: for outwardly they took part in Church ordinances (Jude 1:12 understand it, "separate," cast out members of the Church by excommunication (Isaiah 65:5; 66:5; Luke 6:22; John 9:34 them out of the Church;" 3 John 1:10 "themselves," which indeed is read in some of the oldest manuscripts as English Version has it. Arrogant setting up of themselves, as having greater sanctity and a wisdom and peculiar doctrine, distinct from others, is implied.
sensual--literally, "animal-souled": as opposed to the spiritual, or "having the Spirit." It is translated, "the natural man," 1 Corinthians 2:14 body, soul, and spirit, the due state in God's design is, that "the spirit," which is the recipient of the Holy Spirit uniting man to God, should be first, and should rule the soul, which stands intermediate between the body and spirit: but in the animal, or natural man, the spirit is sunk into subserviency to the animal soul, which is earthly in its motives and aims. The "carnal" sink somewhat lower, for in these the flesh, the lowest element and corrupt side of man's bodily nature, reigns paramount.
having not the Spirit--In the animal and natural man the spirit, his higher part, which ought to be the receiver of the Holy Spirit, is not so; and therefore, his spirit not being in its normal state, he is said not to have the spirit (compare John 3:5,6 completion of redemption the parts of redeemed man shall be placed in their due relation: whereas in the ungodly, the soul severed from the spirit shall have for ever animal life without union to God and heaven--a living death.
20. Resuming Jude
building up yourselves--the opposite to the "separate themselves" (Jude 1:19 Spirit."
on--as on a foundation. Building on THE FAITH is equivalent to building on Christ, the object of faith.
praying in the Holy Ghost--(Romans 8:26; Ephesians 6:18 teaches what we are to pray for, and how. None can pray aright save by being in the Spirit, that is, in the element of His influence. CHRYSOSTOM states that, among the charisms bestowed at the beginning of the New Testament dispensation, was the gift of prayer, bestowed on someone who prayed in the name of the rest, and taught others to pray. Moreover, their prayers so conceived and often used, were received and preserved among Christians, and out of them forms of prayer were framed. Such is the origin of liturgies [HAMMOND].
21. In Jude
1:20,21 Holy Ghost: and faith, hope, and love.
Keep yourselves--not in your own strength, but "in the love of God," that is, God's love to you and all His believing children, the only guarantee for their being kept safe. Man's need of watching is implied; at the same time he cannot keep himself, unless God in His love keep him.
looking for--in hope.
the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ--to be fully manifested at His coming. Mercy is usually attributed to the Father: here to the Son; so entirely one are they.
22, 23. None but those who "keep themselves" are likely to
have compassion--So one oldest manuscript reads. But two oldest manuscripts, Vulgate, &c., read, "convict"; "reprove to their conviction"; "confute, so as to convince."
making a difference--The oldest manuscripts and versions read the accusative for the nominative, "when separating themselves" [WAHL], referring to Jude 1:19 Greek is translated, Jude 1:9
23. save with fear--The oldest manuscripts do not read "with
fear" in this position: but after "snatching them out of the
fire" (with which, compare Amos
4:11; 1 Corinthians
3:2 escape), they add the following words, forming a THIRD class, "and
others compassionate with (IN) fear." Three kinds of patients require three
kinds of medical treatment. Ministers and Christians are said to
"save" those whom they are made the instruments of saving; the Greek
for "save" is present, therefore meaning "try to save." Jude
1:9 three classes are: (1) those who contend with you (accusative
case in oldest manuscripts), whom you should convict; (2) those who are
as brands already in the fire, of which hell-fire is the consummation: these you
should try to save by snatching them out; (3) those who are objects of compassion,
whom accordingly you should compassionate (and help if occasion should
offer), but at the same time not let pity degenerate into connivance at their
error. Your compassion is to be accompanied "with fear" of being at
all defiled by them.
hating--Even hatred has its legitimate field of exercise. Sin is the only thing which God hates: so ought we.
even the garment--a proverbial phrase: avoiding the most remote contact with sin, and hating that which borders on it. As garments of the apostles wrought miracles of good in healing, so the very garment of sinners metaphorically, that is, anything brought into contact with their pollution, is to be avoided. Compare as to lepers and other persons defiled, Leviticus 13:52-57; 15:4-17 polluted; and anyone touching them was excluded, until purified, from religious and civil communion with the sanctified people of Israel. Christians who received at baptism the white garment in token of purity, are not to defile it by any approach to what is defiled.
24, 25. Concluding doxology.
you--ALFORD, on inferior authority, reads, "them." You is in contradistinction to those ungodly men mentioned above.
keep . . . from falling--rather, "guard . . . (so as to be) without falling," or stumbling.
before the presence of his glory--that is, before Himself, when He shall be revealed in glory.
with exceeding joy--literally, "with exultation" as of those who leap for joy.
25. To the only . . . God our Saviour--The oldest
manuscripts add, "through Jesus Christ our Lord." The transcribers,
fancying that "Saviour" applied to Christ alone, omitted the words.
The sense is, To the only God (the Father) who is our Saviour through (that is,
by the mediation of) Jesus Christ our Lord.
power--authority: legitimate power. The oldest manuscripts and Vulgate, after "power," have "before all the age," that is, before all time as to the past: "and now," as to the present; "and to all the ages," that is, for ever, as to the time to come.